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Satz, Ronald N. / Transactions of the Wisconsin Academy of Sciences, Arts and Letters
volume 79, No. 1

End notes,   pp. 199-207 ff. PDF (3.2 MB)


Page 200


Wisconsin Academy of Sciences, Arts & Letters
Francis Paul Prucha's account of the removal of the northern Indians during
the
Jacksonian era unconvincingly argues that the emigration of these tribes
was merely
a "part of their migration history" and stresses federal paternalism
in Indian affairs
(Prucha 1984, 1: 243-69). Excellent maps and accompanying text dealing with
the
removal of the Indians from the Great Lakes region appear in Tanner (1987).
For
a recent analysis of the contrast between the rhetoric and reality of Jacksonian
Indian
policy that includes references to Wisconsin, see Satz (1991).
    7. In 1911, the Iowa Journal of History and Politics reprinted a version
of
the treaty proceedings that originally appeared in volume 1, numbers 11 and
14 of
the Dubuque Iowa News (1837, 408-28). The 1911 publication, however, is not
a
verbatim reproduction of the original handwritten copy (Van Antwerp 1837)
on file
in the National Archives and Records Service, which was utilized in this
study (see
Appendix 1).
    8. The sutlers were civilian businessmen appointed by the War Department
to
sell items not furnished soldiers by the subsistence or quartermaster departments.
    9. The First Infantry arrived in Florida in November of 1837 and departed
on
August 4, 1841. For information on the Seminole Indian War and the role of
the
First Infantry, see Mahon (1985).
     10. For an example of one effort to open a mill along the Chippewa River
in
1836, see Dousman (1836); Stambaugh (1836); Chippewa Chiefs ({1836}); Harris
(1836); and Young and Robinson (1838).
     11. References to documents included in the Appendices are highlighted
in
italics immediately after the related text. Frame numbers are provided instead
of
page numbers for items on microfilm.
     12. Anthropologist James A. Clifton contends La Trappe's comments indicate
the willingness of the Pillager and other Minnesota bands to sell the pinelands
in
Wisconsin, which were useless to them, while reserving from sale the deciduous
forests. In addition, Clifton views later efforts of the Chippewas to clarify
the
meaning of La Trappe's words as evidence the Pillagers had inserted the qualification
into the official record in order to be able to later "dodge undesirable
ramifications
of the agreement or to reopen negotiations" (Clifton 1987, 12).
     13. The mixed-blood population among the Chippewas and other Wisconsin
Indians never emerged as so socially cohesive a group as the Metis of central
Canada. White traders not only seemed to prefer mixed-blood wives but they
also
took steps to educate and employ their children (Kay 1977, 329). On the significance
of the mixed-bloods among the Chippewas, also see Brunson (1843a).
     14. The document has recently been published with editorial notes and
an
historical introduction by a Canadian linguist; see Nichols (1988).
     15. Governor Henry Dodge referred to William Warren as a man with "much
influence" over the Chippewas who was "well qualified" to
serve as an interpreter
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