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Juday, Chancey (ed.) / Transactions of the Wisconsin Academy of Sciences, Arts and Letters
volume XXI (1924)

Baker, Frank Collins
The fauna of the Lake Winnebago region,   pp. [109]-146 PDF (11.3 MB)

Page 128

128    Wisconsin Academy of Sciences, Arts, and Letters.
and Oligochaete worms also descend to six meters or more. This
fauna is not large. Hydra oligactis occurred at two habitats on
a gravel bottom and Planarta maculata was found in the same
places; Hyalella was rare in the deeper habitats; Ephemera oc-
curred at 2.5 meters, Caenis at 4 meters, and Hexagenia at 5.5.
meters; Sialis infumata was rare; Corixa and Plea striola, nymphs,
were rare; Trichoptera (Molanna, Agraylea, Leptocella, Hydro-
psyche and Helicopsyche) disappeared at 3.1 meters. A single
larva of Nymphula was dredged at a depth of 4 meters on a mud
bottom. Coleoptera included Psephenus lecontei at 2.8 meters,
Hydrovatus pustulatus at 4 meters, and Dascyllid larvae down t&
3.4 meters, none common. Hygrobates was found at 2.5 meters,
and Limnesiopsis at 3.1 meters.
               LAKE BUTTE DES MORTS (Table 1).
  Lake Butte des Morts is about five miles long and two and a half
miles wide with a maximum depth of 4.6 meters. It is but a wid-
ened-out lower portion of the Fox River, though carrying also the
waters of Wolf River and several creeks. Most of the ecological
conditions of a' lake environment are present. Boulder shores are
rare, occurring on such places as Plummers Point and Sunset
Point, where, however, sand and gravel are quite as common and
are usually closely associated with boulders. The shores in the
bays are usually marshy with an abundant growth of sedge, cat-
tails, and other aquatic plants. In many places this kind of shore
is fully a quarter of a mile in width. The bottom of "the bays is
usually of mud, clay, or fine sand covered with a thick layer of
plant debris. Sand occurs along some shores, as west of Plummers
Point, as well as on the bottom of the marsh areas at the west end
near the Fox River channel. The same vegetation occurs as in
Lake Winnebago.
  About the same kind of mollusks occur in this lake as in Lake
Winnebago. A few species, as Nephronaias carinata, Amblema
costata, and Amnicola limosa, indicate the influence of the Fox
River fauna. As in Lake Winnebago, the number of species de-
creases with increased depth, 51 species being found between shor~e
and 2 meters, 12 species between 2 and 3 meters, and but 3 species
below 3 meters. Three species make up 53 per cent of the total
molluscan population, Amnicola limosa 22 per cent, Bythinia 24
per cent and Valvata 7 per cent.

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