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Transactions of the Wisconsin Academy of Sciences, Arts and Letters
volume VIII (1888-1891)

Peet, S. D.
The clan centers and clan habitat of the effigy builders,   pp. 299-311 PDF (5.3 MB)

Page 311

The Clans of the Effigy Builders.
fox and a squirrel. West of the asylum we find three long mounds with
an effigy in the midst on the side hill -on the top of the hill an animal
with a very long tail, possibly a squirrel, another with a short bushy tail,
perhaps a raccoon, another man mound, and a large cluster of burial
mounds, one of which contained an altar. These effigies do not bear the
right proportion to one another, for the panther is some two or three
times larger than the buffalo and the pigeon is even larger than the
panthers. The fox is very slender but the two man mounds are even
smaller than the fox; the deer is very small, not an eighth as largeas the
eagle, but the squirrel has a tail 300 feet long, which is really the longest
tail we have anywhere seen.
  Our explanation of these two classes of works is that one (the citadel)
embodied the council houses or assembly places of the clans, the other
the houses of the chiefs or clan rulers. This is conjectural but satisfies
the demands of the problem better than any other conjecture. We
throw it out merely as a suggestion, but would call attention to the
different classes of mounds as they are brought before us on this general
map. The habitats of the different clans may certainly be ascertained
by the totems. We think also that the clan centers can also be ascer-
tained and the different places where clan life embodied itself can be
identified. Their villages with their game drives, burial places, sacrificial
places, dance grounds, assembly houses, council houses, and the houses
of their chiefs, all can be located by the study of the effigies.

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