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Wisconsin State Horticultural Society / Annual report of the Wisconsin State Horticultural Society for the year ending July 1, 1921
Vol. LI (1921)

Toole, William, Sr.
Our Wisconsin native trees,   pp. 126-135 PDF (2.6 MB)

Page 128

typed shape for evergreens will be outgrown, and the trees will
assume a dignity of proportions making it seem out of place as
a front yard ornament. Where there is room for an additional
kind of pine the Red pine, sometimes called Norway pine-Pinus
resinosa-is a good companion to our White pine. The beauty
of effect of evergreens is possible and, in many places, exists
through planting or sparing, entirely independent of home sur-
The Gray pine-P inus Banksiana-is not of much importance,
either in an economic or decorative way, although it is some-
times planted. When we consider the poor soil where this
species is most abundant,, as we see it in natural groves, we should
feel thankful that the Gray pine has been created for such places.
Among the evergreens we have a deciduous conifer-the Tam-
arack or American larch-Larix laricina. The wood is useful in
many ways. For ornamental planting it is more graceful in
form than the European species and thrives well in ordinarily
good soil, although found growing-wild, mostly in swamps.
Our native White spruce-Picea canadensis-ranks with the
best of the evergreens for ornamental plantings. It win fit into
more restricted surroundings than will the White pine, but should
have room and a suitable aspect.
The White spruce is so very good for planting we do not need
to plant the Bog or Black spruce-Picea Mariana. Formerly
people planted the Balsam fir-Abies balsamea-for ornament.
It has an attractive appearance when young and small. but looks
old and disappointing as soon as it fairly becomes a tree. Don't
plant it for permanence.
To me the handsomest of our native evergreens is the Hem-
lock-Tsuga canadensis-also called Hemlock spruce. In the
days when the soles of our shoes were all leather, lots of Hem-
lock bark was used for tanning. The wood is coarse grained,
but is a useful substitute for- pine for rough work. While of
slow growth in cultivation, 'there is graceful beauty of the tree,
which is well worth striving to secure.
The Arbor Vitae or White cedar-Thuja occidentalis-is so
useful for posts and poles it is difficult to conceive how we can
get along for need of them when they become as scarce as White
pine lumber now is. We, in the southern part of the state, who
usually see the White cedar only in cultivation, marvel at the

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