Wisconsin State Horticultural Society / Annual report of the Wisconsin State Horticultural Society for the year 1910
Volume XL, Part II (1910)
Moore, J. G., et al.
Orchard tillage session, pp. 106-117 PDF (2.5 MB)
WISCONSIN STATE HoRTIcuLUREA SocmK. very good profit; but, on the other hand, on the larger farms, Michigan has learned another lesson, and that is, too much clean culture and not turning back any humus robs our soils. At the present time there are a great many farms that are depleted of humus, and the method now is, in some of the younger or- chards especially, they cultivate down the tree rows a strip about three furrows wide, the rest seeded to clover. This is left about two years, the first and second crop of clover is usu- ally taken off and what ever grows up the following spring is turned under and in that way we have got the humus back into the soil to quite an extent, but on the smaller farms where we raise the vegetables, we sow a cover crop in the fall, which grows very rapidly, and such a winter as this it will grow under the snow nearly all winter, and in the spring we will have a fine growth to turn under, which helps turn back this humus in the soil, and this method is followed out until our trees come into bearing. Mr. President: We will now hear from Mr. Bryant of Illinois Mr. Bryant: I want to say that while I am from Illinois I am not going to speak of Illinois practice entirely, I am going to speak from my own practice and experience, and would say that Prof. Moore 's remarks at the start were very much in line with my ideas. We plant our trees thirty feet apart, and use corn for the first few years without any rotation. I would say with us that in our ordinary soil the trees do not need any stimulation the first few years, we get growth enough, we do not care to en- courage more until they begin to bear, then we practice the clean cultivation the earlier part of the summer and where trees are bearing heavily we put on manure. I said we planted the trees thirty feet apart each way and in that way we can plant seven rows of corn, putting it two feet and a half apart each way, rowing both ways, and that will leave a wide space next the tree, perhaps about four feet and a half, and of course that space right next to the trees you have to cultivate with a single horse, it gives a little more air and room n~ext the trees and a better chance to cultivate. I do not know that this question extends any further than the first few years, it does not refer to the later practice. I was going to say that we practice clean cultivation after the tree comes into bearing for the earlier part of the season and then we apply a cover crop. We think that is very essential. Our conditions of course may be differ- M i i i i i i I 116
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