Wisconsin State Horticultural Society / Annual report of the Wisconsin State Horticultural Society for the year 1910
Volume XL, Part II (1910)
Taylor, O. M.
Small fruits--principles of management, pp. 69-74 PDF (1.4 MB)
72 WISCONSIN STATE I0ORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. kind and amount already in the soil. The Geneva Experiment Station is frequently requested to make analysis of a soil and to forward a formula, based on the analysis, most suitable for any one of the Small Fruits. It is possible for the chemist to tell what is in the soil and how much, but he cannot determine how much of this is available to the plant or how rapidly the plant may use such food. Some soils may lack nitrogen-others potash, or phosphoric acid, and many are deficient in humus, or lack of fertility may be due to unfavorable soil texture or to bad drainage, under which condition fertilizers will be of but little use until a more favorable environment has been secured. One method of determining the kind and amount to use is by trial, leaving check rows for comparison. If the soil responds to phosphoric acid, applications of fertilizers rich in this form of plant food should be made, and so with potash or nitrogen. Possibly a combination of two foods may meet the needs of the soil or perhaps a complete fertilizer may be found most suitable. These fertilizing mater:als should be applied in such a way as to make comparisons with each other and with checks, to which nothing has been applied. It is more difficult to use cover crops among small fruits than with tree fruits, yet they may at times be used to advantage, and when combined with the use of stable manure may do much to keep up the supply of humus. Distance of Planting. In general the plants should not be crowded. There should be ample room for each plant to secure its share of food and moisture from the soil, and air and sun- light should not be shut out from the growth above ground. The distance apart of rows and of plants depends on the system of cultivation, character of growth and richness of the soil. Red raspberries may be set closer than black raspberries, six or seven feet by two feet, and blackberries still further apart. Currants and gooseberries 41/2 to 6 feet apart, and strawberries the closest of any of the small fruits. Pruning. The operations of pruning are not so difficult as with tree fruits-yet some attention must be given to this sub- ject. The old canes of raspberries and blackberries are of no further use after the fruit has been harvested. They frequently harbor insects and diseases as well as crowding and shading the new growth. For these reasons the practice is followed among many growers of cutting out and burning the old wood as soon as the fruit has been harvested. The pruning of currants and U I I U I I U I I U I I U I I U I I U I I U I I U I I i
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