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Wisconsin State Horticultural Society / Transactions of the Wisconsin State Horticultural Society. Proceedings, essays and reports at the annual winter meetings, held at Madison, Feb. 1, 2 and 3, 1870 and Feb. 7, 8 and 9, 1871
(1871 [covers 1870/1871])

Andrews, C.
The Siberian species of the apple,   pp. 30-35 PDF (1.4 MB)


Page 32


32       WISCONSIN STATE HORTICLTURAL SOCIETY.
have a distinct origin; no doubt in a more northern latitude, than that of
the first
named group. Their quality is second; but their superior hardiness enables
them to
meet the wants of a much wider belt of territory toward the north, than the
tenderer
sorts of more southern origin. They are all summer apples-a strong inference
in
favor of their high northern origin, as fruits ripening in those short summers
must
necessarily mature early. The practical fact to be noticed here is the mistake
of
those who are seeking to produce from seeds of Russian apples a hardy winter
fruit
for the north. It will not be done by bringing cions from northern Europe,
or
planting seeds in the extreme north. But a long'Vourse of reproduction, in
a climate
where the seasons are longer, will be required to change these fruits from
summer
to winter ripening sorts. At the same time, such cultivation in a southern
latitude
will not alter the constitution of the trees, so as to render them any the
less hardy,
when returned to a northern climate. Another practical point is-the futility
of the
hope of producing hardy or " acclimated " trees in the north, by
planting seeds of
the tenderer sorts there. The law that seeds produce plants after their kind,
will
prevent any such result.
Third. Another species of summer fruits, also of high northern origin, are
culti-
vated in this country-the Pyrus Malus Baccata of Loudon. This fruit is men-
tioned in American Pomology as having been seen by Pallas near lake Baikal,
as a
shrub three or four feet high, bearing berries the size of peas. The calyx
in this
species falls oA leaving the fruit smooth: hence its name baccata, berry-like.
It is
called in our gardens cherry crab, currantS and sometimes pea crab. The fruit
is
highly prized by all good housewives for preserving, and by planters in town
and
country the tree is esteemed as highly ornamental for garden or lawn. The
marked
advance in this species from the diminutive shrub found in Asia, warrants
the belief
that it will continue to sport into still higher forms. It is instructive
just here to
observe that while all of the Siberian species are rapidly improving, we
hear of no
new sports from the European crab, and actually know of none from the wild
crab
of our own country.
Fourth. Still another species of the Siberian crab apple, according to Loudon's
classification, remains to which to pay our respects. The varieties originating
from the
Pyrus Halus Prunifolia or Plum-leaved Siberian Crab, are of comparatively
re-
cent production, its two most common representatives, the large red and yellow
Siberian crabs having been mentioned by writers on pomology so late as 1857
as
being "by no means commop " These sorts, however, have been very
rapidly dis-
seminated, and had at one time quite a run, as fancy preserving fruits, in
the mar-
kets of the large cities. Their great beauty and novelty no doubt contributed
to
this result. Their faults are, small size, astringency, and early decay.
But with
all their faults, they possess sufficient merits to maintain a constant place
in the
markets, for trees and fruit, and they are planted in almost every garden,
and used
in every family for various culinary purposes. A word as to the limit of
diffusion
of this species. The common Siberians are grown in all the middle and eastern
states. They thrive also in the southern states even as far south as the
vicinity of
Mobile, Alabama. From Arkansas, Texas, Mississippi, North Carolina and Ten-
nessee, information received shows that they are known and appreciated wherever


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