Wisconsin State Cranberry Growers Association / Wisconsin State Cranberry Growers' Association. Forty-seventh annual meeting, Wisconsin Rapids, Wisconsin, December 14, 1933. Forty-seventh summer convention, Wisconsin Rapids, Wisconsin, August 8, 1933
Chambers, E. L.
Why insect control problems are on the increase in Wisconsin, pp. 26-33 PDF (2.2 MB)
26 WISCONSIN CRANBERRY GROWERS' ASSOCIATION WHY INSECT CONTROL PROBLEMS ARE ON THE INCREASE IN WISCONSIN E. L. CHAMBERs Following the two extensive scientific talks we have just heard there is not very much left for me to talk about. Your President has mentioned the fact that we still have plenty of pests in Wisconsin and in so doing has kindly suggested a subject, having intimated that I might tell you something of what you may expect in the way of an insect crop for another year. Naturally we do not want anyone to get the impression that the entomologists are lying down on the job, so in admitting that the problem is becoming greater each year, it might be advisable to outline some of the reasons. I. CLIMATIC CONDITIONS Probably the outstanding reason is the hot, dry seasons we have ex- perienced during the past three years. Scale insects, plant lice and borers of various types are always much more abundant during such seasons since the mortality is less in the absence of frequent rains, low temperatures and beating storms. Nature tends to off-set heavy losses to the various stages of insects by providing for the laying o0 hundreds of eggs or giving birth to enormous numbers of progenv bv each individual and, consequently, during seasons favorable for their development such a large percentage of insects are allowed to survive that they make serious inroads on their favorite host plant crops. Long seasons permit development of additional generations and mild winters favor their survival during their dormant stage. Under such ideal winter conditions as we have had for their development these insects build up a population year after year until checked by adverse growing seasons. IL CULTURAL PRACTICES Reducing the number of plants and at the same time reducing the varieties, as we do in clearing up timber land and planting to such crops as corn and potatoes, naturally necessitates the concentration of the only existing insect population on whatever crops are available. The pea aphis has recently become so serious as to make the grow- ing of canning peas almost unprofitable. Most of this pea aphis de- velopment may be attributed to the fact that alfalfa growing has developed from the few acres of twenty years ago to nearly 600,000 acres in Wisconsin at the present time. Unfortunately the alfalfa being a perennial and growing in the vicinity of pea-growing areas, provides ideal winter environment for the pea louse as well as feed- ing grounds, during the spring, until the pea crop appears. To cultural practices again can also be attributed the development of our recent grasshopper outbreaks. In northern Wisconsin where these hoppers are most injurious, farm practices are ideal for their development. Here with cultivated crops surrounded by sandy waste land, road sides, railroad right-of-ways, and pasture lands, undis- turbed by the plow, the hoppers after destroying the cultivated crops migrate back and lay their over-wintering eggs. If these areas were not available the control of the grasshopper would not be such a ser- ious problem, since plowing-under infested fields will eliminate any further injury by burying the eggs at a depth in the soil where the hoppers will not be able to emerge. The practice of discing corn
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