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Cranefield, Frederic (ed.) / Wisconsin horticulture
Vol. I (September 1910/August 1911)

Wisconsin horticulture, vol. 1, no. 2: October, 1910,   pp. [1]-16 PDF (7.6 MB)

Page 14

       (Continued from page 7) 
the trees. Sometimes sucking      in- 
sects or the curculio carry the bac- 
teria to young    fruits, introducing 
them into the wound which the in- 
sect makes, thus giving rise to "Fruit 
Blight," which is not at all uncom- 
mon both in apples and pears. The 
bacteria work their way down the 
blighted  blossom  spur or blighted 
shoot and spread out into time bark, 
forming the cankers. These cankers 
are always marked by a well defined 
line or crack between the diseased 
and healthy bark. With the forma- 
tion of these cankers the seasonal 
cycle of the disease is complete. The 
bacteria thus go into winter quar- 
ters in these hold-over cankers, be- 
coming active again the next sea- 
son, providing a source of infection 
for the spreading of the disease. 
  This disease is sometimes very 
abundant and destructive in nursery 
stock.  The source of infection in 
these cases has been repeatedly lo- 
cated in hold-over cankers on old 
neglected pear and    apple trees or 
wild thorn trees near the nursery. 
The removal of these trees or of the 
cankers ini them  has almost always 
given immediate relief from the se- 
verity of the blight in the nursery 
stock. The disease is frequently in- 
troduced into the nursery stock by 
bees which visit the stray blossoms 
on quince or apple trees in the nur- 
sery row. From these centers of in- 
fection it is spread by plant lice and 
leaf hoppers to adjoining trees and 
from these to others, thus spreading 
the   epidemic. Mr. V. B. Stuart; 
holder of the C. W. Stuart & Co. 
fellowship, demonstrated during the 
summer of 1909 that this disease ('an 
be profitably controlled in nursery 
stock. By a systematic cutting out 
and disinfecting he was able to save 
a total of 2,317    apple, pear and 
quince trees which became infected 
during the season but which were 
saved   by  prompt removal of the 
blighted tips of the shoots.    From 
130 acres devoted to apple, pear and 
,quince stock lie lost only 346 trees 
during   the season, 256 of which 
were lost from a quince block which 
was badly infested and many of the 
trees were beyond saving when lie 
began his work in the spring. By 
means of an automatic counter be 
kept a careful record of the number 
of trees pruned and the number of 
trees removed. 
  The secret of success in control- 
ling fire blight is the frequent and 
systematic removal of all blighted 
blossom spurs and shoots before the 
disease can get into time trunk or 
large limbs of the trees. This means 
the inspection  of the orchard    or 
nursery from one to three times a 
week, carefully removing the blight- 
ed parts and disinfecting the wound 
wherever a cut is made, with cor- 
rosive sublimate, one part in a thou- 
sand parts of water. Disinfect the 
wound, not the tools. Failure to in- 
spect and remove the blight regu- 
larly and frequently means a cer- 
tain loss in large limbs and often of 
trees, for the blight may extend into 
a tree quite   rapidly, killing long 
limbs in a few days if not removed. 
In ordinary seasons one man should 
be able to handle ten acres of Bart- 
lett pears ten years old   by  going 
over the trees once or twice a week. 
In controlling the disease in nursery 
stock it will I e found exceedingly 
helpful in preventing the spread of 
the disease to eradicate the apple 
aphis as far as possible. This was 
very successfully done in the Stuart 
nursery this season by dipping the 
lice infested shoots into whale oil 
soap dip, seven pounds to fifty gal- 
lons of water. Mr. J. V. Curtis, of 
Hilton, N. Y., has successfully used 
the above method in controlling tie 
fire blight in his pear orchard of a 
thousand trees during the seasons of 
1908 and 1909. 
  "In reply to your letter soliciting 
advertisements for WISCONSIN ]loR- 
TICUcJT1 i'E am pleased to le able to 
inform you that you have quite a 
number of 'live wires' on your sub- 
scription list as our ad. hls paid us 
well. We therefore enclose a six inch 
ad. for October number." 
                  W. J. MeoLE 
          For Wisconsin Nurseries. 
   Mention this paper when writing 
 advertisers. This helps us and also 
 the one who advertises. 
             THE TULIP 
             W. J. IiOYLE. 
  Of all the spring blooming bulbs 
the tulip in our estimation is su- 
preme. It has been our custom for 
years to set out P. Ied or two of 
these pretty spring beauties, which 
do so much to brighten up the land- 
scape in April and May. More peo- 
ple should   plant these bulbs.   I 
mean the common people. A dollar 
or two spent at this time in bulbs 
properly Iplanted will mean a gleam 
of sunshine and happiness to every 
passerby who gazes on this beauty 
spot next spring. 
  Hyacinths, Narcissus ai"l Crocus 
are all pretty in their place but as 
they are much more expensive we 
i:lways  content   oursilves with  a 
good big bed of tulips, putting all 
our surplus cash into these bulbs. 
Crocus are inexpensive and some- 
times when you are crowded for room 
they can lbe planted with excellent 
results. 1 rememlber once calling on a 
city cousin where in the back yard in 
a space of 2 by 2 feet I had the 
pleasure of feasting my eyes on the 
Irettiest little bed of these flowers 
you could imagine. It was a cohl. 
raw day in April, the sun was shin- 
ing but the air was so cold you couli 
hardly feel its warmth. My business 
took me to the back yard. I wasn't 
looking for beauty spots, but on the 
other hanl expected to view what is 
generally found in the back yard, 
viz., ash  pile, old  bones, bottles. 
chicken coops, potato peelings, rub- 
bish and rags.    When, lo and be- 
hold, right beside the doorstep, in 
a   warm, sheltered    nook    fenced 
around with a piece of chicken wire 
to keep off the industrious hen. smil- 
ingly looking up was this bed of 
ycllow beautiis. This bed probabb 
cost the owner forty or fifty cents 
for the bulbs, and she admitted she 
felt repaid for all her trouble and 
expense when she saw the surprise 
rapture and cestacy of your humbl, 
servant, and lie was only     one o 
many who passed in and out tha 
door, as the butcher, the grocer, th- 
baker, and the candl.&stick maker a] 
were given a blossom     to wear i, 
their button-hole. 
   Try a few dozen mixed crocus thi 
Ocob/er 1910 

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