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Wisconsin Dairymen's Association / Fortieth annual report of the Wisconsin Dairymen's Association : held at Beloit, Wis., November, 1911. Report of the proceedings, annual address of the president, and interesting essays and discussions relating to the dairy interests
(1912)

Scribner, E. H.
Address to young men taking part in the boys' judging contest,   pp. 28-35 PDF (1.8 MB)


Page 32


Fortieth Annual Report of the
The dairy cow does all her work below this line and therefore the blood
circulation of that cow is largely below that line. So we have to look
to all these things if we are going to have a successful dairy machine.
The next indication is perhaps the backbone. I like to follow that
line with my hand. On some cows it is all covered with meat or fat.
We want it free from meatiness, so that you can put your finger down
in the processes between the bones; that is what we call an open con-
formation.
We want a cow that has plenty of room below, a deep, strong barrel.
Occasionally a cow may be found with a narrow barrel like a
race horse or a grey-hound; good ones are sometimes found that are
like that, but for steady, everyday work we like a cow with great
capacity, plenty of room for storage, which is indicative of large di-
gestive capacity.
There are some things we don't like in dairy cows. Some of our
cows are sloping in the rump,-some of the best, perhaps, but we
want to work toward a perfect ideal and that calls for a straight top
line coming out square and nice. A very good indication of the length
of an udder may be had by noticing the length between these two
points. When a cow is fresh and her udder is full, it will extend as far
forward as her hip, and as far backward as the pin-bone.
Now from the hip bone to the bone just at the end of the tail, which
we call the pin-bone-we like to see a cow long between these two
points because a good cow must have a good udder, and a good place
for it, if she is going to be a good worker. I want an udder to occupy
a lot of room on the body. If you are observing, you have noticed a
great many different kinds of udders. We don't like the long, slim,
narrow, pendant udder for with such an udder, a cow cannot walk easily;
It gets soiled in wet weather and when she lies down it comes in con-
tact with the cold, damp ground, and that causes trouble. We want
an udder tied up well under the cow and attached strongly to the body.
Why do I want that? Because if she is a heavy milking cow it is
liable to break loose. I have seen many of them break loose from the
body, and they are not a desirable type. There is another reason for
having the udder occupy a large space on the body and that is because
the milk is made from the blood, and if you will look on the under side
of the cow, you will see great tortuous veins there; some of them are
immense, as large as my wrist, and if this udder occupies a large space
on the body it comes more in direct touch with the large veins coming
down through the body, and gives more chance for the small arteries
to run through the different cavities of the udder and deposit mate-
rial for the manufacture of milk. When I am judging cattle, I always
go round behind a cow and see how far in the rear this udder comes
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