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Schoenman, Adolph / Milk testing : instructions for testing milk and dividing money for creameries, cheese factories and dairymen

Chapter II. Making the test,   pp. 11-16 PDF (1019.6 KB)

Page 14

is removed from the machine. Any temperature be-
tween I iO F. and I 5o0 F. will answer, but the higher
temperature is to be preferred. The slight difference
in the volume of fat due to this difference in temper-
ature is not sufficient to materially affect results.
  To measure the fat, take a bottle from its socket,
and holding it in a perpendicular position with the
scale on a level with the eye, observe the divisions
                    which mark the highest and the
                    lowest limits of the fat. The dif-
           7        ference between these gives the
       _           per cent. of fat directly. The
b C--6          d reading can easily be taken to half
       C  S        divisions, or to one-tenth per cent.
                      The line of division between the
                    fat and the liquid beneath is near-
                    ly a straight line and no doubt
           _   t   need arise concerning the reading
                    at this point, but the upper sur-
                    face of the fat being concave, er-
           0        rors often occur by reading from
                    the wrong place.  The reading
      FIG. 5.    should be taken at the line where
the upper surface of the fat meets the side of the tube
and not from surface of fat in the center of the tube
nor from the bottom of the dark line caused by the
refraction of the curved surface.  For instance, in
Fig. 5 the reading should be taken from a to b and
not to c or d.
  The reading may be made with less liability of error
by measuring the length of the column of fat with a

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