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The history of Columbia County, Wisconsin, containing an account of its settlement, growth, development and resources; an extensive and minute sketch of its cities, towns and villages--their improvements, industries, manufactories, churches, schools and societies; its war record, biographical sketches, portraits of prominent men and early settlers; the whole preceded by a history of Wisconsin, statistics of the state, and an abstract of its laws and constitution and of the constitution of the United States
(1880)

History of Columbia County: Chapter I,   pp. [309]-[325] ff. PDF (9.3 MB)


Page 314


HISTORY OF COLUMBIA COUNTY.
of the Lower Magnesian. The Lodi and Portage road crosses in Section 20,
Township 11,
Range 9 east, a'high bluff, in a deep cut, which exposes about thirty feet
of the calcareous lay-
ers which immediately underlie the Mendota beds.
     Pacific (including that part of Township 12, Range 9 east, which lies
east of the Wis-
consin River).-The Potsdam sandstone is the only indurated formation and
is unfrequently
exposed.
     Fort Winnebago (Township 13, Range 9 east).-The Potsdam sandstone is
the only indurated
formation, and the soil is generally loose and sandy. At T. Coughlin's quarry,
northeast quar-
ter of thp southwest quarter of Section 20, are exposed ten feet of heavily
bedded, fine-grained,
white, porous, friable sandstone, which is composed of glassy subangular
quartz grains, and is
blotched with ferruginous spots. Rows of little brown-stained pores mark
the'laminations very
plainly. Large fucoidal impressions occur. Large regular-shaped blocks are
obtained. The
isolated bluff on the adjoining parts of Sections 25 and 36 shows numerous
small exposures of
white crumbling non-calcareous sandstone for a thickness of about ninety
feet.
     Lewiston and Newport (Township 13, Range 7 east, and portions of Township
12, Range
8 east and Township 13, Range 6 east), are like the town of Fort Winnebago,
in being
entirely within the Potsdam sandstone area.
     Lodi and West Point (Township 10, Range 8 east, and that part of Township
10, Range
7 east, which is south of the Wisconsin).-The Potsdam sandstone underlies
all the lower levels,
and forms the lower portions of the bluffs, which above includes the Mendota
and Madison
beds, the Lower Magnesian limestone, and in one case the whole thickness
of the St. Peters
sandstone. Rock exposures are very frequent along the bluff sides.
     Near the southeast corner of Section 27, Lodi, Township 10, Range 8
east, the road
ascending the bluff is cut into the Madison sandstone, of which twenty-five
feet in thickness
is exposed. The uppermost layers are light-brownish, medium grained, friable
and calcareous,
the rolled quartz grains having mingled with their fragments of cleavable
calcite. The rest of
the exposure shows the usual dark brown, friable, non-calcareous sandstone.
Above is sixty
feet of Lower Magnesian limestone in small weather-roughened exposures, and
below. a small
outcropping of the Mendota beds. The Lower Magnesian, Mendota and upper calcareous
layers
of the Potsdam are exposed again on the south side of the bluff in the southeast
quarter of
Section 12; and again, on the south face of the bluff on the northeast quarter
of Section 21,
both in Township 10, Range 8 east. The Lower Magnesian limestone is also
exposed in quar-
ries in the southwest quarter of Section 7; the southeast quarter of Section
20; the southwest
quarter of Section 20; the southeast quarter of the northeast quarter of
Section 32; near the
middle of the north half of Section 34, where the Madison sandstone shows
well in a cave
below the quarry, and near the center of the north line of Section 31; all
in Township 10,
Range 8 east; also near the center of the north line of Section 13, in the
southwest quarter of
Section 24; the northwest quarter of the northwest quarter of Section 26,
the north half Sec-
tion 31, and in the northeast quarter of the northeast quarter of Section
36, all in Township
10, Range 7 east. These quarries are generally at the top of the bluff faces,
where the rock
is often to some extent naturally exposed. The Mendota is quarried on the
hillside just west
of the depot at Lodi, where it presents the typical yellow color and reddish
stains, and is over-
laid at the top of the hill by white incoherent Madison sandstone. Another
and much larger
Mendota quarry is on the south side of the bluff in the south half of Section
18, Township
10, Range 8 east.  There are some ten feet of very regularly bedded, yellow
sandy lime-
stone, the layers below heavy, above thin and shaly, with fine large specimens
of Dicello
cephalus Minnesotensis.
     Gibraltar Bluff is the name given to the bold cliff of St. Peters sandstone,
which sur-
mounts the western end of a large outlying area of limestone-capped bluffs
in Sections 17
and 18, Township 10, Range 8 east. The area over which the sandstone is present
is proba-
bly not more than forty*rods in diameter, but the top of the bluff reaches
an elevation of about
six hundred and thirty feet above Lake Michigan, or upwards of four hundred
and fifty feet
314


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