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The history of Columbia County, Wisconsin, containing an account of its settlement, growth, development and resources; an extensive and minute sketch of its cities, towns and villages--their improvements, industries, manufactories, churches, schools and societies; its war record, biographical sketches, portraits of prominent men and early settlers; the whole preceded by a history of Wisconsin, statistics of the state, and an abstract of its laws and constitution and of the constitution of the United States

Hoy, P. R.
Trees, shrubs and vines,   pp. 128-134 PDF (3.1 MB)

Page 133

little value  The balsam of fir, or Canadian balsam, is obtained from this
     DOUBLE SPRUCE-A. NVigra.--This grows in the same localities with the
balsam fir, and
 assumes the same pyramidal form, but is considerably larger. The wood is
light and possesses
 considerable strength and elasticity, which renders it one of the best materials
for yard's and top-
 masts for shipping. It is extensively cultivated for ornament.
     HEMLOCK-A. Cahadensis.-The hemlock is the largest of the genus. It is
gracefully orna-
 mental, 'but the wood is of little value. The baik is extensively employed
in tanning.
     TAMARACK--LariX Americana.-This beautiful tree grows abundantly in swampy
 throughout the state. It is not quite an evergreen  It drops its leaves
in winter, but quickly
 recovers them in early spring. The wood is remarkably durable and valuable
for a variety of
 uses. The tree grows rapidly, and can be successfully cultivated in peaty
situations, where other
 trees would not thrive.
     ARBOR VITYE-Th-Ja Occidentalis.-This tree is called the white or flat
cedar. It grows
 abundantly in many parts of the state. The wood is durable, furnishing better
fence posts than
 any other tree, excepting the red cedar. Shingles and staves of a superior
quality are obtained
 from these trees. A beautiful evergreen hedge is made from the young plants,
which bear trans-
 planting better than most evergreens. It will grow on most soils if sufficiently
     RED CEDAR--yrunperus Virginiana. - Is a well known tree that farnishes
those celebrated
fence posts that " last forever."  The wood is highly fpragrant,
of a rich red color, and fine
grained ; hence it is valuable for a variety of uses. It should be extensively
     DWARF JUNIPER-f. Sabina. -This is a low trailing shrub.    Is conside-ably
prized for
ornament. Especially worthy of cultivation in large grounds.
     SASSAFRAS-- Sassafras officinale.- Is a small tree of fine appearance,
with fragrant leaves
bark. Grows in Kenosha county. Should be cultivated.
     WILLOWS.--There are many species of willows growing in every part of
the state, several of
which are worthy of cultivation near streams and ponds.
     WHITE WILLOW--Salix alba.--Is a fine tree, often reaching sixty feet
in height. The wood
is soft, and makes the best charcoal for the manufacture of gun-powder. Grows
     BLACK WILLOW - S. Nzigra.-- This is also a fine tree, but not quite
so large as the foregoing.
It is used for similar purposes.
     There are many shrubs and vines indigenous to the state worthy of note.
I shall, however,
call attention to only a few of the best.
     DoGwooDs. - There are several species found in our forests and thickets.
All are ornamen-
tal when covered with a profusion of white blossoms. I would especially recommend:
sericea, C. stolonifera, C. paniculata, and C. alternifolia.  All these will
repay the labor of trans-
planting to ornamental grounds.
     VIBURNUMS.--These are very beautiful. We have viburnum len/ago, V. prunifolium,
V. nudum,
 V. den/atum, V. pubescens, V. acerzfolium, V. pauciflorum, and V. opulus.
 The last is known as
 the cranberry tree, and is a most beautiful shrub when in bloom, and also
when covered with its
 red, acid fruit. The common snow-ball tree is a cultivated variety of the
V. opulus.
     WITCH HAZEL--Hamamelis Virginica. --Is an interesting, tall shrub that
flowers late in
autumn, when the leaves are falling, and matures the fruit the next summer.
It deserves more
attention than it receives.
     BURNING BUSH- Euonymus alropurpureus. - This fine shrub is called the
American straw-
berry, and is exceedingly beautiful when covered with its load of crimson
fruit, which remains
during winter.

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