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The history of Columbia County, Wisconsin, containing an account of its settlement, growth, development and resources; an extensive and minute sketch of its cities, towns and villages--their improvements, industries, manufactories, churches, schools and societies; its war record, biographical sketches, portraits of prominent men and early settlers; the whole preceded by a history of Wisconsin, statistics of the state, and an abstract of its laws and constitution and of the constitution of the United States

Oldenhage, H. H.
Climatology of Wisconsin,   pp. [121]-128 PDF (3.9 MB)

Hoy, P. R.
Trees, shrubs and vines,   pp. 128-134 PDF (3.1 MB)

Page 128

kee river, even while the area from which it receives its supply is but partially
cleared, that the
proprietors of most of the mills and factories have found it necessary to
resort to the-use of
steam, at a largely increased yearly cost, to supply the deficiency of water-power
in dry seasons
of the year." "What has happened to the Milwaukee river, has happened
to all the other water
courses in the state from whose banks tire forest has been removed; and many
-farmers who
selected land uqon which there waĆ½ a living brook of clear, pure water,
now find these brooks
dried up during a considerable portion of the year.,
     Districts stripped of their forest are said to be more exposed than
before to loss of harvests,
 to droughts and frost. "Hurricanes, before unknown, sweep unopposed
over the regions thus
 denuded, carrying terror and devastation in their track." Parts of
Asia Minor, North Africa,
 and other countries bordering on the Mediterranean, now almost deserts,
were once densely
 populated and the granaries of the world. And there is good reason to believe
" that it is the
 destruction of the forests which has produced this devastation." From
such facts Wisconsin,
 already largely robbed of its forests, should take warning before it is
too late.
                                    By P. R. HOY, M.D.
     It is not the purpose of this article to give a botanical description,
but merely brief notes on
 the economical value of the woods, and the fitness of the various indigenous
trees, shrubs and
 vines for the purpose of ornament, to be found in Wisconsin.
     WHITE OAK-Quercus Alba.-This noble tree is the largest and most important
of the
American oaks,  The excellent properties of the wood render it eminently
valuable for a great
variety of uses. Wherever strength and durability are required, the white
oak stands in the first
rank. It is employed in making wagons, coaches and sleds ; staves and hoops
of the best quality
for barrels and casks are obtained from this tree; it is extensively used
in architecture, ship-
building, etc.; vast quantities are used for fencing; the bark is employed
in tanning. The domes-
tic consumption of this tree is so great that it is of the first importance
to preserve the young
trees wherever it is practicable, and to make young plantations where the
tree is not found. The
white oak is a graceful, ornamental tree, and worthy of particular attention
as such ; found abun-
dantly in most of the timbered districts.
     BURR OAK-Q. Mfacrocarpa.-This is perhaps the most ornamental of our
oaks.  Nothing
can exceed the graceful beauty of these trees, when not crowded or cramped
in their growth, but
left free to follow the laws of their development. Who has not admired these
trees in our exten-
sive burr oak openings?   The large leaves are a dark green above and a bright
silvery white
beneath, which gives the tree a singularly fine appearance when agitated
by the wind.  The wood
is tough, close-grained, and more durable than the white oak, especially
when exposed to frequent
changes of moisture and drying; did the tree grow to the same size, it would
be preferred for
most uses. Abundant, and richly worthy of cultivation, both for utility and
    SWAMP WHITE OAK-Q. Bicolor.-Is a valuable and ornamental tree, not quite
so large or
as common as the burr oak. The wood is close-grained, durable, splits freely,
and is well worthy
of cultivation in wet, swampy grounds, where it will thrive.
     POST OAK-Q. Obtusiloba.-Is a scraggy, small tree, found sparingly in
this state. The tim-
ber is durable, and makes good fuel. Not worthy of cultivation.

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