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The history of Columbia County, Wisconsin, containing an account of its settlement, growth, development and resources; an extensive and minute sketch of its cities, towns and villages--their improvements, industries, manufactories, churches, schools and societies; its war record, biographical sketches, portraits of prominent men and early settlers; the whole preceded by a history of Wisconsin, statistics of the state, and an abstract of its laws and constitution and of the constitution of the United States
(1880)

Butterfield, C. W.
III.--Pre-territorial annals of Wisconsin,   pp. 29-41 PDF (6.5 MB)


Page 33


PRE-TERRI TO1IAL ANNALS OF WISCON[IN.                                 33
James Gorrell, in command, with one sergeant, one corporal and fifteen privates.
There also
remained at the post a French interpreter and two English traders. The name
of the fortifica-
tion was changed to Fort Edward Augustus. This post was abandoned by the
commandant on
the twenty-first of June, 1763, on account of the breaking out of Pontiac's
War and the capture
of the fort at Mackinaw by the savages. The cause of this war was this: The
Indian tribes
saw the danger which the downfall of the French interests in Canada was sure
to bring to them.
They banded together under Pontiac to avert their ruin. The struggle was
short but fierce-
full of",, scenes of tragic interest, with marvels of suffering and
vicissitude, of heroism and endur-
ance;" but the white man conquered. The moving incidents in this bloody
drama were enacted
to the eastward of what is now Wisconsin, coming no nearer than Mackinaw,
which, as just
mentioned, the savages captured; but it resulted in the evacuation of its
territory by British
troops, who never after took possession of it, though they continued until
1796 a nominal
military rule over it, after Mackinaw was again occupied by them.
     An early French Canadian trading station at the head of Green bay assumed
finally the
 'form of a permanent settlement -the first one in Wisconsin. To claim, however
that any
 French Canadian is entitled to the honor of being the first permanent white
settler is assuming
 for him more than the facts seem to warrant. The title of " The Father
and Founder of Wis-
 consin'" belongs to no man.
     After Pontiac's War, one of the noted events in this region was the
journey of Jonathan
 Carver, who, in 1766, passed up Fox river to the portage, and descended
the Wisconsin to the
 Mississippi. He noticed the tumbling-down post at what is now Green Bay,
Brown county.
 He saw a few families living in the fort, and some French settlers, who
cultivated the land
 opposite, and appeared to live very comfortably. That was the whole extent
of improvements
 in whatý is now Wisconsin. The organization of the Northwest Fur
Company; the passage of
 an act by the British Parliament by which the whole Northwest was included
in the Province of
 Quebec; the joining of the Indians in this region with the British, against
the Americans, in the
 War of the Revolution; the exploration of the lead region of the Upper Mississippi
by Julian
 Dlbuque; the passage of the'ordinance of 1787; the first settlement of the
territory northwest
 of the River Ohio; and the Indian war which followed, are all incidents,
during British occu-
 pation, of more or less interest for the student of Wisconsin history. He
will find that, by the
 treaty of 1783 and of 1795, with Great Britain, all the inhabitants residing
in this region were to
 be protected by the United States in the full and peaceable possession of
their property, with'the
 right to remain in, or to withdraw from it, with their effects, within one
year. All who did not
 leave were to be deemed American citizens, allowed to enjoy all the privileges
of citizenship, and
 to be under the protection of the General Government.. He will also find
that less than two
 years, was the whole time of actual military occupation of what is now Wisconsin
by British
 soldiers, and that English domination, which should have ended at the close
of the Revoln-
 tion, was arbitrarily continued until the Summer of 1796, when the western
posts, none of which
 were upon territory circumscribed by Lakes Michigan and Superior and the
Mississippi river,
 were delivered into the keeping of the United States. Thus the supremacy
of Great Britain over
 the Northwest was, after an actual continuance of thirty-five years, at
an end.
     Although the General Government did not get possession of the region
northwest of the Ohio,
throughout its full extent, for thirteen years subsequent to its acquirement
by the treaty of peace
of 1783 with Great Britain, nevertheless, steps were taken, very soon, to
obtain concessions from
such of the colonies as had declared an ownership in any portion of it. None
of the claimants,
seemingly, had better rights than Virginia, who, by virtue of conquests,
largely her own, of the
Illinois settlements and posts, extended her jurisdiction over that country,
erecting into a county
33


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