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Whitbeck, R. H., 1871-1939 (Ray Hughes) / The geography of the Fox-Winnebago valley
(1915)

Chapter II. The origin and physical features of the Fox-Winnebago Valley,   pp. 7-12 PDF (1.9 MB)


Page 8


GEOGRAPHY OF FOX-WINNEBAGO VALLEY
THE DIFFERING CHARACTER OF THE RoCKS
As already stated, some of the rocks are sandstone, some are
shale, and some are limestone. Most people who live in the Fox
River Valley know the limestone, for it may be seen in many
places. The shale is soft and is readily eroded. The limestone
is more resistant to wear than the shale, and some beds of the
limestone are harder than others. And so it has come about that
where softer beds of rock are exposed to the wearing action of
streams and weather, valleys have been made, and between them
the harder layers form low ridges, though none of these are
conspicuous except the one which forms the bluff along the east
side of the Valley.
CAUSE OF THE VALLEY
The Valley of the Lower Fox and Lake Winnebago is due
partly to the less resistant shale which lies under the limestone,
while the cliff of the Niagara limestone which forms the steep
eastern side of the Valley is due to the resistant character of that
rock.
It is noteworthy that the two main rivers of eastern Wisconsin,
the Fox and the Rock, do not take short-cuts directly to Lake
S          I         2         3 M11es
FIG. 1. CROSS SECTION OF VALLEY AND UPLAND ON THE EAST
Note the depth of the glacial drift in the Valley nd the shallownesa of Lake
Winnebago.
(Dagrm- by srfti)
Michigan, but flow respectively north and south; the latter from
the Horicon fnarsh flows southward into Illinois and thence to
the Mississippi River. The reason for this longer journey to the
sea is the presence in eastern Wisconsin of the Niagara limestone
ridge which extends north and south roughly parallel to the shore
of Lake Michigan, and prevents the streams from the interior of
the state from flowing directly to the lake; thus the Fox is turned
northward to Green Bay and the Rock southward to the Mis-
sissippi River.
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