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Trenk, Fred B. (Fred Benjamin), 1900- / Forest planting handbook

The best plantation for local conditions,   pp. 17-28 PDF (3.2 MB)

Page 25

ing of eight by eight feet is sufficiently close. It is important to make
the most use of any small openings in the thicket for the placing of
the trees and to plant the trees well into the mineral soil, rather than
just into the duff of partly decayed aspen or birch leaves. The grub-
hoe is necessary for making proper holes and removing duff and
matted roots.
  Gradual thinning out of over-topping aspen or birch is necessary,
and the products so cut may be useful for excelsior or pulpwood.
    Same area as shown in the picture on the opposite page. This
  view was taken nine years later and shows how the white pine is
  predominating. Crosses indicate same tree to enable close com-
Planting in Old Fields
  Portions of cleared lands to be reforested may represent a wide
group of soil types, some of which have been described previously
in, this series of planting conditions. Plots unsuitable for plowing or
Pasturing because of stoniness or inaccessibility are the ones most
likely to be planted by farmers. The soil on such areas may be sandy
and light, or very stony as in the kettle moraine district. Suggestions
made previously for planting sandy and light, or stony soils are ap-
plicable here.
  There are a few features characteristic of old fields which justify a
separate diseussion. Frequently old fields are badly infested with
weeds, including the Canada thistle and quack grass. Ultimately
planted trees will smother out weeds, if the young trees are able to
withstand the first eight or ten years of competition from the weeds.
This may mean partial cultivation to destroy the most detrimental
weeds nearest the young trees. This partial cultivation is facilitated
by planting the trees in rows.
  Furrowing is always advisable and especially where there is any
If the old field is on a hillside, the furrows should be plowed in
a way not to start gullies or ditches. The standard six by six-foot

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