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Rappel, Joseph J. / A centennial history of the Manitowoc County school districts and its public school system, 1848-1948
([1948])

Certification of teachers,   pp. 8-9 PDF (943.8 KB)


Courses of study, gradation, texts, and libraries,   pp. 9-10 PDF (1000.2 KB)


Page 9


    The standards for the three grades of teachers' certificates were raised
as, the
years went by. New subjects were added and by 1939, when spring and summer
teachers' examinations were discontinued in Manitowoc county, a second grade
teach-
ers' certificate was issued if the applicant had a certain amount of professional
train-
ing and a minimum of 80 in practice and 75 in all other subjects. A first
grade teach-
ing certificate was issued after a certain amount of professional training
and a mini-
mum of 85 in practice and 80 in all other branches. Second and third grade
certifi-
cates were good for one year, while a first grade was issued for two year
periods. All
certificates were limited to the county in which they were issued.
    After 1909, an applicant not only had to pass a teachers' examination
but also had
to attend a professional school for teachers for at least six weeks. Six
years later, an
applicant for a teachers' license had to be an eighth grade graduate and
have at least
two yers of schooling beyond that, one year of which had to be devoted to
professional
training. By 1919, the state required two years of high school and one year
of pro-
fessional training. This standard was raised two years later to high school
graduation
and one year of professional training. In 1939, high school graduation plus
two years
of training were required of rural teachers.' After 1939, the power of issuing
teaching
certificates by the county superintendent was abolished and all teacher certification
was placed in the hands of the state superintendent of schools.
    Teacher certification by the Manitowoc county superintendent of schools
after
1902 was reduced to a minimum with the establishment of a teachers' training
school,
now the County Rural Normal. Teachers' examinations were continued up to
1939
but primarily for the purpose of raising the grade of teaching certificates.
By 1920,
third grade teaching certificates were almost non-existent in our county.
Second grade
certificates could be renewed every three years when credits in two first
grade certi-
ficates had been secured by summer school attendance or by examination. First
grade
eprtificates were1 renetwable -  *;          All             .~
                                 -.7 ý . -  . ceitficaei aftr Ivjo
could De re-
d if the teacher did the necessary reading circle work for teachers in addition
to
ther requirements given above. After 1939, teaching certificates could be
renew-
very seven years if the applicant had completed an extra year of professional
during that span of time. This requisite applied to teachers with less than
four
of professional work.
COURKS~g. OF W]["rV    fTIII fTIIJkITf'T 'r'lV~a r .T,TTL-TTT ,T
'he first pioneer school set up in Manitowoc county were concerned with teach-
ie children the 3 R's of reading, writing, and arithmetic. Any grown person
who
pass a very easy examination in these three subjects could be a teacher if
he
e wished! The subjects of reading, writing, arithmetic, and grammar were
the
ipal ones taught until the early 1850's. Geography was added to the course
in
950's, but the district board was given authority to add such "other
brancheS" 'as
ght deem advisable and necessary, The return of the soldiers after the Civil
brought a demand for the teaching of history and civics. Thus by 1870, spelling,
ng, arithmetic; U. S. history, geography, grammar, and in some schools physiology
the subjects taught.
nineteenin century county school children were not graded as they are to-
irregular attendance of the children plus the intelligence levels existing
then,
today, made advisable the division of the pupils into A, B, C, D, E, and
up
ses. These divisions were further grouped into primary, intermediate, and
ims. The A class in the primary form was made up of children in the primers.
the upper form were considered the advanced students and were the ones
lily took the teachers' examination. Definite requirements for advancement
from one form to another were setup as early as 1880. (For a citation of
these
  the daily school program, and other interesting educational facts, see
the
  Daily Register, No. 822, published by Donohue and Henneberry of Chicago.)
system of grading pupils into Grade 1 to 8 inclusive was instituted about
1910.
classes for each grade were conducted daily with the first and second grades
their time learning to read and speak the English language. The fifth to
the
ades were by 1915 studying grammar, orthoepy, physiology, mental arith-
S. history, civil government, written arithmetic, geography, agriculture,
spell-
ng, and nature study. As the years passed, the state legislature required
the
of more and more subjects which eventually necessitated the grouping of
ratter under more- #.clusive headings. An example of such grouping is the
f agriculture, nature study, physiology and health under a science course.
r cut down on the twenty-eight classes which a rural school teacher had to
1930, a system of "block" teaching was. inaugurated. In "block"
teaching all
9
COURSES OF STUDY- GRADATION 'r1EXTS RIZT% - T T


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