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Haywood, Carl N. (ed.) / Transactions of the Wisconsin Academy of Sciences, Arts and Letters
volume 75 (1987)

Moran, Joseph M.; Somerville, E. Lee
Nineteenth-centrury temperature record at Fort Howard, Green Bay, Wisconsin,   pp. 79-89 PDF (4.4 MB)

Page 83

Fort Howard Temperature Record 
FT. HOWARD, 1822—31, 1833—40 
GREEN BAY, 1968—198~5 
F— C 
 a e a p a u U u e C c~ e n 
 n b r r y n I g p t ~ c n 
* Fcrt Hcward ~f~J] Green EGiy 
Fig. 2. Comparison of monthly and annual mean temperatures in °F
at Fort
Howard for 1822-1831 and 1833-1840, and Green Bay, Wisconsin for 1968-1985.
Except for April and September through November, the recent period was cooler
than the earlier period. 
lished Fort Howard temperature record is 1830s. Particularly anomalous is
January remarkably complete through the cumula- with a temperature difference
of — 5.9 F°. tive 22 years and 7 months of weather But
just how
realistic is this comparison? observations. Only five days within this Several
considerations beam on the integperiod (27—3 1 December 1832) are
nity of the Font Howard temperature temperature data. Focusing on the first
record and hence, the validity of its comepisode of weather observations
and panison to modern climatic data. These eliminating 1832 as well as the
incomplete considerations are (1) the accuracy, cxyears of 1821 and 1841,
there are 18 years posune, and location of the thermometer, (1822-1831 and
1833—1840) for which (2) the method of computation of mean monthly
and annual mean temperature temperatures, and (3) the reliability of the
data are available for comparison with the weather observers. 
modern National Weather Service tem- Although we have no direct infommapenatune
record at Green Bay. That com- tion on the thermometer at Font Howard, panison
is made for a recent 18-year pe- we do have a description of the themnod
(1968-1985) in Figure 2 and suggests mometer at Fort Snebbing, a contemporary
that, except for autumn (September, Oc- of Fort Howard, located near St.
Paul, toben, and November) and April, recent Minnesota. According to Ludlum
(1968), years have been cooler than the 1820s and William H. Keating, an
explorer who 

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