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Haywood, Carl N. (ed.) / Transactions of the Wisconsin Academy of Sciences, Arts and Letters
volume 75 (1987)

Moran, Joseph M.; Somerville, E. Lee
Nineteenth-centrury temperature record at Fort Howard, Green Bay, Wisconsin,   pp. 79-89 PDF (4.4 MB)


Page 82

Fig. 1. Fort Howard was located near the mouth of the Fox River at Green
Bay. When this map was published in 1833, army medical personnel at the fort
had compiled almost 12 years of daily weather data. (North America Sheet
V: The Northwest and Michigan Territories, 1833, Society for the Diffusion
of Useful Knowledge. From the American Geographical Society Collection, University
of Wisconsin-Milwaukee.) 
Wisconsin Academy of Sciences, Arts and Letters82 
draw comparisons between it and the modern climatic record of Green Bay?
 This question is posed because of today's concern oven the future course
of climate and how variations in climate might affect society, a concern
that has sent climatologists in search of an understanding of both how and
why climate varies. Perhaps the most direct approach to determining this
is to scrutinize closely the record of past climate because, after all, what
has happened climatically can happen again. Unfortunately, in most places
a reliable instrument-based record of past climate is limited to a little
more than 100 years, and 
such record lengths simply may not encompass the full range of possible climatic
variations. The lengthier and more detailed the view of the climatic past,
the more data are available to aid in understanding how climate has varied
and how it might vary in the future. The potential value, then, of the Fort
Howard and other nineteenth-century weather records is evident. 
 Among the weather elements that constitute the Fort Howard weather record,
temperature is the most convenient and perhaps most useful for drawing comparisons
between the climate then and now. Except for the 1841-1849 hiatus when the
fort was unoccupied, the pub- 


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