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Haywood, Carl N. (ed.) / Transactions of the Wisconsin Academy of Sciences, Arts and Letters
volume 75 (1987)

Clifton, James A.
Wisconsin death march: explaining the extremes in old northwest Indian removal,   pp. 1-40 PDF (18.7 MB)


Page 10

Wisconsin Academy of Sciences, Arts and Letters10 
Vineyard from Crow Wing above Fort Snelling and Daniel P. Bushnell from La
Pointe—visited the interior Wisconsin bands. Indeed, a year later
Bushnell
still hardly knew the locations of the bands he served or the boundaries
of his subagency. 26 
 Although in earlier treaties the Chippewa had been identified as a "tribe,"
the treaty sought at the confluence of the Mississippi and St. Peter's rivers
in July 1837, was negotiated with a new, American-conceived political-administrative
fiction, the "Chippewa Nation." The use of "nation" did
not denote any sense
of 
political sovereignty. Instead it was used as a means of dealing with the
several Chippewa bands collectively. This novel appellation allowed American
authorities to negotiate with some of their delegates as if they represented
all and to treat the whole of the lands they occupied as a "national"
estate,
a concept alien to traditional Chippewa thinking. But while the leaders from
the bands on the Lake Superior shore demurred, on the principle that the
tract being ceded were not theirs to sell, the powerful chiefs from the Mississippi
bands made no attempt to disabuse American negotiators of this 


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