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Durand, Loyal, Jr. (ed.) / Transactions of the Wisconsin Academy of Sciences, Arts and Letters
volume XXXI (1938)

James, Harry Raymond; Birge, Edward A.
A laboratory study of the absorption of light by lake waters,   pp. [1]-154 PDF (46.6 MB)


Page 2

 2TABLE OF CONTENTS 
 Page 
INTRODUcTION 7 
CHAPTER I. Apparatus and methods 15 
 Monochromator 15 
     Optical system 17 
     Water tubes 18 
     Thermopile 19 
     Galvanometer 20 
     Filters 20 
 Room 21 
 Reading and calculation 22 
 Percentile absorption curves 23 
CiP'na II. Absorption of light by distilled water 25 
 Apparatus and methods 25 
 Results, Table I 30 
    Comparison with other observers, Table II 31 
    Purity of water 37 
    Molecular scattering 38 
 Effect of temperature of water 39 
CHAPTER III. Absorption of light by lake waters 45 
   Section 1. General conditions 45 
       Suspensoids, turbidity 46 
       Color, standard of 48 
           Computation of 52 
           Amount and sources 54 
       General action of lake waters 56 
   Section 2. Observations on lake waters 59 
       Treatment of waters 61 
           Settling 61 
           Filtration 62 
           Dilution 64 
           Control of bacteria 64 
       Spread of single observations 66 
   Section 3. Mean results 67 
           Settled waters 68 
           Filtered waters 69 
           Dilutions 71 
        Three groups of lakes 71 
       Variation of observations 73 


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