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Juday, Chancey (ed.) / Transactions of the Wisconsin Academy of Sciences, Arts and Letters
volume XXI (1924)

Baker, Frank Collins
The fauna of the Lake Winnebago region,   pp. [109]-146 PDF (11.3 MB)

Page 127

Baker-The Fauna of The Lake Winnebago Region.   127
habitat. As observed in Oneida Lake (Baker, 1918, p. 151) many
of the animals were of a peculiar green color due to the algae
they had eaten. Even the shells of mollusks appeared green when
containing the living animal.
  Habitats in Water Deeper than Two Meters (Table 1.)    Be-
yond the two meter contour both plant and animal life becomes
greatly reduced in both number and kind. Upright plants were
not found in Lake Winnebago below three meters. The fauna cor-
respondingly decreases. Among Naiades only one species was
found deeper than 3.4 meters, Lampsilis luteola rosacea at station
69 in water 5.2 meters deep on a mud bottom. Sphaerium de-
scends to four meters, and Pisidium alone among Pelecypods fre-
quents the deepest parts of the lake, about six meters, where it is
abundant. Most of the gastropods disappear between three and
four meters. Amnicola limosa porata descends to 5.5 meters and
is abundant; Valvata tricarinata is rare at 6.1 meters.
  There is a rapid decrease in number of species as the depth of
the water increases. Thus, between 2 and- 3 meters, 63 species
occur; between 3 and 4 meters, 32 species; 4 to 5 meters, 29 species;
and 5 to 6 meters, 13 species. This decrease is greater for Lake
Winnebago than for Oneida Lake, the percentages being as fol-
        Lake Winnebago                      Oneida Lake
      2-meters, -85--per cent.          -8;-8perken                     
      3 meters, 43 per cent.                60 per cent.
      4 meters, 39 per cent.                44 per cent.
      5 meters, 17 per cent.                40 per cent.
  The depth areas seem divisible into three subregions: Littoral
to a depth of three meters where rooted plants cease to grow; sub-
littoral to a depth of four meters where Cladophora and other
algae cease to grow; and aphytal from four to six meters where
plant life (except plankton algae) ceases to grow. The decrease
in plant and in animal life with depth thus appears to be co-
  The associated animals show aboqt the same decrease with
depth as the mollusks, although a greater variety inhabit deeper
water. Chironomid larvae descend to a depth of over six meters
and appear to bear the same relation to the associated animals that
Pisidium does to the Mollusca. Leeches (Glossiphonia and Dina)
- S

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