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Juday, Chancey (ed.) / Transactions of the Wisconsin Academy of Sciences, Arts and Letters
volume XXI (1924)

Baker, Frank Collins
The fauna of the Lake Winnebago region,   pp. [109]-146 PDF (11.3 MB)

Page 124

124    Wisconsin Academy of Sciences, Arts, and Letters.
of Oshkosh; Coleoptera is represented by adults of Hydrovatus-
pustulatus, Haliplus ruficollis, Stenelmis bicarinatus, and Bidessus
flavicolltis. Acarina includes Limnesiopsis, Piona, Limnesia, and
Arrhenurus, all rare and occurring mostly at station 36, the small
pool behind the beach at Roe Point. Leptocerids among Trichoptera
are uncommon; and a single larva of the Lepidopterid Nymphula
was found at station 23, the marsh behind Asylum Point. Leeches
occur at five stations and include Glossiphonia stagnalis, G. neph-
eloides, G. fusca, Erpobdella punctata, and Dina parva.
  The Vegetation Areas. Plants, owing to the shallowness of the
water, are very abundant in Lake Winnebago, and occur com-
monly to a depth of two meters. Beyond this depth they decrease
very rapidly. No plants (excepting algae and microscopic forms)
were found below 2.5 meters and no filamentous algae below 3
meters. The great plant areas are in shallow water, 0.3 to 1.5
meters in depth, in bays and along the margins of shores. Plant
zones of greater or less size extend entirely around the lake, bor-
dering the shore. All of the bays contain an extensive flora which
supports a large and varied fauna. Many individuals collected
from the bottom are migrants, either by intention or accident, from
these plant areas. All kinds of bottom, except boulder, support an
extensive flora, and some plants occur on this inhospitable sub-
stratum, as at habitat 43 where two species of Potamogeton and a
Vallisneria occurred.
  Plants serve three very useful purposes for the bottom fauna.
First, they form a binding medium which prevents the bottom
from shifting; second, they form a means of attachment and sup-
port for the crawling and clinging members of the fauna; and
third, they provide a foraging ground, either directly by their own
material, or indirectly by harboring many small animals used as
food by other members of the fauna or by providing support for
filamentous algae, the principal food supply of many forms of
animal life. The statement' so often made by biologists-that an
abundant fauna is dependent upon an abundant flora-is strik-
ingly emphasized in Lake Winnebago, for the animal population is
very large per unit area and the flora is equally luxuriant. The
lake's large and varied fauna is due to the shallow depth which
enables a rich flora to become established.

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