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Transactions of the Wisconsin Academy of Sciences, Arts and Letters
volume XII, Part II (1899)

Lincoln, Azariah Thomas
The electrical conductivity of non-aqueous solutions,   pp. [395]-453 PDF (16.7 MB)


Page 452

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  452            Lincoln-Electrical Conductivity.
  value of fA in those solutions that conduct, is not commensurate
  with the degree of association of the solvent.
    6. The molecular conductivity, in general, increases with the
 dilution; but in several cases the conductivity decreases with
 the successive dilutions.
    7. The molecular conductivity usually increases with the tem-
 perature; but not proportionately. In some cases it remains
 virtually constant with increase of temperature, while in others
 it decreases. The changes in viscosity accompanying a varying
 temperature have not been determined.
   8. The conductivity of electrolytes depends very much upon
 the nature of the solvent employed. No rigid classification can
 be made; but, in general, solutions in the hydrocarbons and
 their halogen substitution products do not conduct. Alcoholic
 solutions conduct well and the conductivity, in general, de-
 creases with the increase of the carbon content. Solutions in
 esters conduct, but those of high carbon content usually yield
 solutions that conduct very poorly. The ketones and the alde-
 hydes yield solutions that conduct well. Of the nitrogen com-
 pounds ammonium and ammonia substitution products, or
 amines, conduct  The nitrites of both the aliphatic and aro-
 matic series yield conducting solutions; and of the organic
 bases, pyridine and quinoline come under this same category.
   9. The dissociation theory as promulgated for the explanation
of the electrical conductivity of aqueous solutions, apparently
cannot be applied in its present form to explain the conduc-
tivity in non-aqueous solutions. It further appears that the
auxiliary theories, which are based upon the specific inductive
capacity, the polymerization of the molecules, and the self-
ionization of the solvent, are not sufficient to explain satisfac-
torily the facts that have been accumulated. Notwithstanding the
work that has been done, the data at hand are as yet insufficient
for the formulation of a theory by means of which a satisfac-
tory explanation can be given of the phenomenon of electrical
conductivity of solutions in general.
  This investigation was made in the Laboratory of Physical
Chemistry of the University of Wisconsin. It was undertaken
at the suggestion of Professor Kahlenberg and carried on
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