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Transactions of the Wisconsin Academy of Sciences, Arts and Letters
volume IV (1876-1877)

Allen, William F.
Department of social and political sciences,   pp. [1]-6 PDF (1.8 MB)

Page 6

6      Wisconsin Academy of Sciences, Arts, and Letters.
estates are regularly stated in some such manner as this: "'Ifansa
X1y7er bunaria XII, et Mie dimidius per bunaria YJ "-"
mansi of twelve bunuaria each, and a half one of six bunuaria."
The size of the manses varies exactly as that of the virgate in
English manors*; that is, it is generally uniform in the same
villa, but ranges in the different villas from ten to twenty-four
bunuaria, with sometimes, however, two or three different stand-
ards in the same villa. For example, in Pupurninga there are ten
mansi of twenty-four bunuaria; ten of twenty; ten of fifteen;
seventeen of thirteen, and one-half mansi of eight. We find also
a large number of peasants with independent holdings, not given
as mansa, and very irregular in amount; like the freeholders of
  The result of this inquiry, which embraces all the documents
relating to France which I have been able to examine, is corn-
pletely to confirm the expectations which appeared probable on
general grounds. We find here and there, especially in those
provinces-which had a considerable German element in the popu-
lation, decided indications of uniformity in single villages or
estates, sometirnes even on a larger scale. But as a whole, uni-
formity is not the rule but the exception; the communities, if
they were such, appear to have been isolated and scattered amid
-a population which was prevailingly irregular and heterogeneous.
                    *See Transactions, Vol. II, p. 223.

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