Transactions of the Wisconsin Academy of Sciences, Arts and Letters
volume IV (1876-1877)
Allen, William F.
Department of social and political sciences, pp. -6 PDF (1.8 MB)
6 Wisconsin Academy of Sciences, Arts, and Letters. estates are regularly stated in some such manner as this: "'Ifansa X1y7er bunaria XII, et Mie dimidius per bunaria YJ "-" fifteen mansi of twelve bunuaria each, and a half one of six bunuaria." The size of the manses varies exactly as that of the virgate in English manors*; that is, it is generally uniform in the same villa, but ranges in the different villas from ten to twenty-four bunuaria, with sometimes, however, two or three different stand- ards in the same villa. For example, in Pupurninga there are ten mansi of twenty-four bunuaria; ten of twenty; ten of fifteen; seventeen of thirteen, and one-half mansi of eight. We find also a large number of peasants with independent holdings, not given as mansa, and very irregular in amount; like the freeholders of England. The result of this inquiry, which embraces all the documents relating to France which I have been able to examine, is corn- pletely to confirm the expectations which appeared probable on general grounds. We find here and there, especially in those provinces-which had a considerable German element in the popu- lation, decided indications of uniformity in single villages or estates, sometirnes even on a larger scale. But as a whole, uni- formity is not the rule but the exception; the communities, if they were such, appear to have been isolated and scattered amid -a population which was prevailingly irregular and heterogeneous. *See Transactions, Vol. II, p. 223.
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