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Wisconsin State Horticultural Society / The Wisconsin horticulturist: issued monthly, under the management of the Wisconsin State Horticultural Society for the purpose of disseminating the horticultural information collected through the agency of the society
Vol. I, No. 5 (July 1896)

A lesson in budding,   pp. 29-31 PDF (586.3 KB)

Goff, E. S.
What caused the death of the shade trees?,   pp. 31-32 PDF (359.4 KB)

Page 31

move much of it, and then turned a little so as to run out
about a fourth of an inch below the bud.
With the ivory end of the budding knife, the "lips" of bark
in the angles of the T cut are next loosened from the wood,
as is being done bv the central student in the picture. whllen
the bit of bark bearing the bud is slipped down behind these
lips. using the stub of the leaf-stem left on it for a handle,
until the top end of the bit of bark is just below the horizontal
cut of the T. The bud, of which the apex should of course
point upward, is then visible between the lips of the stock.
The next operation which is being performed by the left hand
student in the picture is that of tying the bud. For this pur-
pose, an oriental grass called "raflia," which mav be ordered
through1 the larger seedsnien is now chiefly used. This should
be moistened a little before use. A bit of raffia is held as is
shown bv the student across the lower end of the T cut, and
just below the inserted bud. The ends are then crossed on
the opposite side of the stock, brought forward and crossed
again just above the bud, entirely covering the horizontal cut
of the T, and pressing the lips down snugly over the bud.
Then bring the ends behind again, and tie a half knot, draw-
ing them up moderately tight.
If the bud "takes" it will grow fast to the stock in a very
few d(las. In about ten days the rali'a should be taken off,
bv cuti ing it on the opposite side of the stock from whiclh the
bud was inserted.
The great mortalit- among shade and forest trees this sea-
son has elicited much comment and various hypotheses as
to its cause. "Root killing" has been a favorable explanation,
which appears to satisfy many inquirers, and there is evi-
dence in manv cases that the roots perished before the rest of
the tree. The root-killing has been ascribed to the freezing
of the roots in an unusually dry soil, a proposition that would
have been more tenable had the past winter been a severe
one, instead of the mildest one with which we have been fa-

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