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Wisconsin State Horticultural Society / Annual report of the Wisconsin State Horticultural Society for the year ending July 1, 1921
Vol. LI (1921)

Toole, William, Sr.
Our Wisconsin native trees,   pp. 126-135 PDF (2.6 MB)


Page 132


FIFTY-FIRST ANNUAL REPORT OF
The following oaks, Red oak, Yellow oak, and Quercitrox or
Yellow Barked oak, also called Black oak, might be placed in a
class by themselves, because, through a general resemblance, peo-
ple often confuse them. The Red oak-Quercus rubra-is the
most distinct of the three. It forms a tall tree in heavy woods,
where the other two are seldom found, but it is seldom found with
the Yellow oak. The wood is coarse grained and is not as good
for firewood as the others. Leaves and acorns are large.
The Yellow oak, sometimes called Black oak-Quercus elip-
soidalis-sometimes colonizes on loamy soil, but often mingles
with real Black or Quercitron oak on light and poorer soils, and
but rarely in rich woods where the maples and basswoods grow.
The leaves are deeply cleft and the trees are often mistaken for
the Pin oak of farther south. The Black or Quercitron oak-
Quercus velutina-is most commonly found growing in poor
sandy soil. The bark on mature trees is dark brown and rough.
The inner bark is orange yellow and is of especial value for
tanning. These latter species of trees are valuable for shade
or ornamental purposes. Q. elipsoidalis, when in groves, is sub-
ject to injury by a fungus which infests the roots, killing young
thrifty trees. I have found trees which I think were hybrids
of the White and the Over Cup oaks, and it is probable that the
other species make natural crosses.
We have several trees belonging to the Nettle family-the
elms and the Hackberry. There is probably no species of dis-
tinctly American tree more generally planted for shade and orna-
mental purposes than is the American White elm-Ulmus awner-
icana. In mature trees, its distinguishing features are unmistak-
able, but in planting the mistake is often made in substituting
the Red elm. There is so much diversity of form in full grown
trees of the White elm it seems as if it would be worth while
for nurserymen to propagate forms of special attractiveness. The
wood is useful in secondary ways.
The Rock elm-Ulmus racemosa-has much the same general
appearance as the White elm. The principal difference is in the
form of the flower clusters and the bark of branches on young
trees. The wood is valuable for lasting qualities, resisting decay,
and is also valuable for good wearing qualities. The' Red or
Slippery elm-Ulmus fulva-grows tall, but not to so nearly a
large tree as the White elm. It has no particular value as a
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