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Wisconsin State Horticultural Society / Annual report of the Wisconsin State Horticultural Society for the year 1910
Volume XL, Part II (1910)

Moore, J. G., et al.
Orchard tillage session,   pp. 106-117 PDF (2.5 MB)

Page 115

of planting beans is to use the single horse planter, mark out
the ground, then hitch the horse to the planter, then go along
the mark, planting two or three beans every two or three inches,
depending on the size of the beans. You can plant from one
peck to one bushel per acre. We usually use about a bushel
to the acre on our orchard.
The President: We have delegates from sister states whom
we wish to hear from, and I will ask Mr Pratt from Michigan
to speak on this subject.
Mr. Pratt: Perhaps our methods are a little different than
yours in Wisconsin. I have noticed from the discussions that
you are planting your trees a great deal closer than we do at
the present time. We used to plant them closer, but now our
apple trees are planted from thirty to forty feet apart each
way. Of course we raise a great many other kinds of fruit.
At Benton Harbor, down in the southwestern corner of Michi-
gan, we raise a great many peaches. While they used to be
planted, fifteen or eighteen years ago, as close as twelve, now,
we are planting twenty to twenty-four feet each way and we
get better crops, better peaches, more satisfactoin all the way
around. As to cultivation there are two methods practiced-;
We have the sod mulch system, that is used only on land that
is hilly and likely to wash. The trees are set on this land
and it is seeded down to either clover or timothy and this is
cut each season, and a large portion of that is piled around
the tree so that no grass will grow under this mulch right
around the tree, and the rest if it is used for grazing until
the trees get big enough to take it all up. The mulch around
these trees is kept up as far as the limbs of the trees reach and
as the trees grow bigger, the sod mulch is stretched out far-
In regard to clean culture methods, the first year we plant
our trees in the corn field, each tree taking the place of a hill
of corn and we get very good results that way, better than any
other method we have practiced. After that there are various
methods used, some use potatoes, same use beans, others vege-
tables. In the southern part of the state we have a good many
small farms, five and ten acres that make a good living and
every foot of ground has to be utilized, and the consequences
are that we raise a great many vegetables there, as we are close
to the Chicago market, and they can sell their vegetables at a

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