Wisconsin State Cranberry Growers Association / Wisconsin State Cranberry Growers' Association. Forty-seventh annual meeting, Wisconsin Rapids, Wisconsin, December 14, 1933. Forty-seventh summer convention, Wisconsin Rapids, Wisconsin, August 8, 1933
Bain, Henry F.
Cross pollinating the cranberry, pp. 7-11 PDF (1.4 MB)
10 WISCONSIN CRANBERRY GROWERS' ASSOCIATION held the flowers erect in a manner strongly suggestive of false blos- mom. The berries remain upright a long time after the jars are re- moved. Pollen of the desired variety is collected in the gelatin capsules commonly used by druggists. It is shaken out by rapidly rolling the flower back and forth between thumb and forefinger, and as it falls it is attreacted to the sides of the capsule and adheres in a thin yellowish layer. It is supplied to the stigmas simply by rubbing the tips of the styles down the side of the capsule. In the routine crosses the flowers are pollinated on the 4th or 5th day and again on the 8th day after stamens are removed. It takes a number of flowers to furnish the necessary amount of pollen, and we soon found that this introduced a source of error, because of the badly mixed condition existing in most varieties of cranberries. We have had to grow many of the va- rieties at the nursery, where we could rogue out vines not true to type. In the effort to save as many berries as possible from the crosses, we have come to realize as never before how great the loss of fruit in the field is. We regularly lose from % to % of the berries which set, largely because of insects, despite efforts to protect them by covering with wire cages and by other means. The flowers pollinated artificially are as a rule supplied with an ex- cess of pollen. The numbers of seeds per berry have been recorded to see whether different pollens affect the numbers to any extent. Some typical results are as follows: No. Berries Average Maximum from No. of seed No. of seed Varieties crossed the cross per berry per berry McFarlin with Bennett pollen---_-- 59 27 39 McFarlin with Centennial pollen 12 27 35 McFarlin with Early Black pollen_ 80 25 43 McFarlin with Howes pollen___------42 25 37 McFarlin with Mammoth pollen----- 61 24 41 McFarlin with Prolific pollen------- 52 29 45 McFarlin with Searle pollen___----- 60 31 43 McFarlin Close pollinated____---- 10 14 28 Early Black with Howes pollen ----- 38 30 39 Early Black with McFar in pollen_. 67 26 43 Early Black Close pollinated___----- 16 16 27 Howes with Early Black pollen---- 10 11 17 Howes with McFarlin pollen-------- 22 13 23 It appears that both McFarlins and Blacks set fewer seed when pol- len from the same flower is used on the stigma. It also appears that Howes will not produce many seed under the most favorable condi- tions. The other two varieties, as well as several not included in the above table, have all produced approximately equal average numbers and maximum numbers of seed. Cranberry seed will not normally germinate as soon as the berries ripen, though it has been reported that germination can be stimulated by certain chemical treatments.' In one test we planted 100 seed freshly removed from berries every week beginning the middle of Oc- tober. A few seed of the lot planted Dec. 16 were the first to germi- nate. Early in January all good seed germinated. It generally takes 3 weeks or slightly more for the seed to come through the soil. The seeds are planted in flats of peat in the greenhouse some time in January or February. The germinating seeds and young plants I Rayner, M. C. The biology of fungus infection in the genus Vacciniurn. Ann- Bot. 42 :65-70-1929. I
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