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Rahmlow, H. J. (ed.) / Wisconsin horticulture
Vol. XXX (September 1939/July-August 1940)

Wisconsin horticulture, vol. 30, no. 11: July-August, 1940,   pp. [305]-328

Page 314

that is not the case. The top lay- 
er actually absorbs moisture from 
the air. 
   The fact that honey will ab- 
 sorb moisture means just two 
 things-that we must keep our 
 storage tanks well covered; that 
 extracting should be done in a 
 dry room, and that the honey 
 should be put into smaller sealed 
 containers just as soon as pos- 
 sible if the weather is at all 
 damp, and to have as little steam 
 as possible in the room with the 
 extracting equipment. That 
 means plenty of venfilation and 
 V ERY few beekeepers realize 
    the amount of pollen which 
 a strong colony of bees would 
 use during a year. At the Cali- 
 fornia Bee Culture Laboratory 
 pollen traps maintained in four 
 different beekeeping areas yield- 
 ed from 33 to 40 pounds of pollen 
 per colony during the year. Have 
 you ever seen 40 pounds of pol- 
 len? It would almost fill a wood- 
 en case used for two 60-lb. honey 
 In the above test, as much as 
 one-half pound of pollen per day, 
 representing 15,000 loads of pol- 
 len, was obtained from one col- 
 ony during the height of fruit 
 bloom. This also shows the great 
 pollenizing value of a strony col- 
 ony in fruit pollination. 
 It was also found that brood- 
 rearing corresponds to the 
 amount of pollen being brought 
 in-the more pollen brought in 
 the more brood was reared. 
          FOR SALE 
  Nearly new, 4-frame honey ex- 
tractor and old-style Brand cap- 
ping melter in good condition. 
Schultz Honey Farm, 835 Lib- 
erty Street, Ripon, Wis. 
  Wanted! Small 2 frame honey 
extractor. Leslie Newell, 1825 
Regent Street, Madison. 
S PECIAL provision for upward 
     ventilation was effective in 
 speeding up and completing the 
 ripening of honey under condi- 
 tions of mild weather and an 
 abundance of nectar, is the con- 
 clusion reached in an experiment 
 by J. F. Reinhardt of the Minne- 
 sota Experiment Station. 
   The experiment as reported in 
 the Journal of Economic Ento- 
 mology of October, 1939, gives 
 the following additional conclu- 
   "Special ventilation is of little 
 value to the honey ripening proc- 
 ess when weather is hot and ex- 
 cessively dry or the honey flow is 
 "Temperature, humidity  and 
 the character of the honey flow 
 are important factors in the rate 
 of honey ripening and they de- 
 termine whether special provi- 
 sions for ventilation are of any 
 effect on the speed of the honey 
 ripening process." 
 Reduced Entrance May Prevent 
  In this experiment one colony 
had its entrance reduced to a 
c r a c k, one-quarter inch deep 
across the width of the hive. Dur- 
ing a good honey flow when the 
humidity was high, this colony 
failed to ripen honey in 21 days. 
  Another colony, however, with 
a regular entrance three-quarters 
inch deep ripened its honey in 11 
days. However, a third and fourth 
colony which had been given in- 
creased ventilation in the top 
super ripened their honey in 6 
  This experiment would indi- 
cate that if we have a heavy 
honey flow    during somewhat 
damp weather, it would be of 
great advantage to give top yen- 
tilation by  raising the upper 
super or sliding it forward. One 
good way is to raise the top super 
or' one side and place a small 
stick between the two supers so 
as to make an opening of about 
one-half inch. Sliding the upper 
super forward in another way it 
can be done, but it would seem 
that during   rain storms this 
would allow water to get into 
the lower supers. 
H ONEY is liable to ferment, 
     especially if it has a high 
moisture content. Fermentation 
usually takes place when the dex- 
trose crystallizes out and leaves 
a levulose solution with a consid- 
erably increased water content. 
  The best way to prevent fer- 
mentation is by pasteurization. 
  In order to determine the exact 
temperature and the length of 
time for which honey should be 
heated to kill the yeast organism 
which is called fermentation, and 
experiments conducted at the On- 
tario Agricultural College by G. 
F. Townsend, reported in the 
Journal of Economic Entomol- 
ogy  (October, 1939), indicated 
that the yeast organisms could be 
killed at the following tempera- 
tures if held for the length of 
time stated: 
135 degrees F. 
140 degrees F. 
145 degrees F. 
150 degrees F. 
155 degrees F. 
Time for Heating 
60 minutes 
26 minutes 
11-13 minutes 
6 minutes 
3!2-5 minutes 
  (For practical purposes the 
time above is given in minutes 
instead of the correct minutes 
and seconds as given in the ex- 
Hive Ventilation May Aid 
           Honey Ripening 
J uly-A uguist, 1940 

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