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Rahmlow, H. J. (ed.) / Wisconsin horticulture
Vol. XXX (September 1939/July-August 1940)

Wisconsin horticulture, vol. 30, no. 10: June, 1940,   pp. [273]-304

Page 300

T is interesting to find that pa- 
   per milk bottles are beginning 
 to appear in shows. It is quite 
 possible that they will come into 
 common use before long and per- 
 haps replace most other contain- 
 ers. Paper milk bottles are sur- 
 prisingly strong and, if well made, 
 will hold water for a week with- 
 out danger of leakage. If water 
 is confined to the lower half, they 
 are well weighted and are not 
 readily tipped over. They are 
 light to handle, easily stored, and 
 can be used several times. Even 
 when new milk bottles must be 
 purchased, the expense will be al- 
 most negative. 
 Milk bottles have been used in 
 exhibitions of the Massachusetts 
 Horticultural Society at Horti- 
 cultural Hall in Boston with some 
 degree of success and it is known 
 that arrangements can be made 
 for purchasing such bottles at a 
 low cost-three or four cents 
 each delivered. The bottles are 
 bulky and require large pack- 
 ages for shipment. 
         Table Covering 
  The covering of the tables at 
flower shows is a matter which 
often causes complications. Some- 
thing is needed which will absorb 
water or at least not be discol- 
ored when water is spilled upon 
it. White paper, often used, is 
far from satisfactory, and burlap 
is in many instances too expen- 
sive. Sometimes fine peat moss is 
used to advantage. A thin layer 
of this material is not objection- 
able and of course absorbs any 
water, which might be spilled 
upon it. Cocoa shells have been 
tried and given good results but 
they throw off an odor about 
which visitors often complain. 
Probably the best material to be 
used for covering the table is 
what is known as brown skin pa- 
per. This paper is pliable enough 
to be handled readily; the color 
is neutral enough to be incon- 
spicuous; and it seldom shows 
stains. It comes in rolls at a rea- 
sonable cost and serves as a sat- 
isfactory background for flowers 
or plants of almost any type. 
-From January 15 Horticulture. 
T HE sudden browning of ever- 
    greens is of more or less com- 
mon occurrence each year. The 
amount of brown or yellow foli- 
age may vary somewhat during 
different years and is also likely 
to be more conspicuous at some 
seasons of the year than others. 
This discolored condition of the 
foliage troubles both nurserymen 
and homeowners. 
  Generally speaking, browning 
occurs at three rather definite 
periods  throughout the year, 
namely, early spring, early sum- 
mer, and early fall. In an attempt 
to diagnose the cause of this 
trouble and to cope with it the 
writer feels that it is important 
to distinguish between these sea- 
sonal periods insofar as possible. 
  Spring   browning-This par- 
ticular type of browning often oc- 
curs during late February and 
early March. It is sometimes call- 
ed winter-drying. The damage is 
done while the soil is still frozen 
so that the tree cannot replace 
the water lost by the needles. 
This type injury is usually more 
noticeable on those portions of 
the tree that are exposed to pre- 
vailing winds and direct sunlight. 
It should not be confused with 
injury to fall planted trees that 
fail to become established, or 
trees in poor vigor, lacking in 
hardiness, or otherwise adverse- 
ly affected from other causes. 
  Summer browning-Browning 
of trees during the summer is in 
most cases caused by insects oi 
related pests. Spruce mite or 
"spider mite" is a common source 
of trouble. The spruce mite not 
only attacks spruces but many 
other types of evergreens as well. 
Upon close examination these 
reddish brown creatures, smaller 
than the head of an ordinary pin, 
can be seen crawling about the 
tree. Usually webbing is in evi- 
dence. Furthermore, mite injury 
is likely to be more prevalent 
during hot dry periods and is fre- 
quently quite "spotted," that is, 
on isolated plants here and there. 
Dusting   sulfur  as frequently 
used by nurserymen gives good 
control. Other possible causes of 
summer browning are scale in- 
sects, root weevils, spruce gall 
aphid, plant diseases, prolonged 
drought, sun-scorch, poor estab- 
lishment of plants, and unfavor- 
able planting sites, particularly 
exposed and poorly drained spots. 
  Fall browning-- Here again 
the amount of browning may 
vary considerably during differ- 
ent years. Commonly, this condi- 
tion is quite natural-that is, it 
is a case of natural shedding or 
pruning of the older leaves and 
branches and is comparable to 
that which occurs on deciduous 
plants. This type injury is par- 
ticularly noticeable on  arbor- 
vitae and may also be observed 
on pines in the form of brown- 
ing and shedding of the 3 and 4- 
year old needles. Occasionally the 
2-year old needles fall, but this 
may be due to some organic 
agency or some adverse weather 
-By F. L. Gambrell. Condensed 
from New York Nursery Notes, 
Edited by H. B. Tukey, Geneva, 
,Tune, 1940 

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