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Rahmlow, H. J. (ed.) / Wisconsin horticulture
Vol. XXX (September 1939/July-August 1940)

Wisconsin horticulture, vol. 30, no. 9: May, 1940,   pp. [241]-272

Page 244

spray-do not spray with arseni- 
cals when trees are in blossom- 
then use 2-3 pounds per 100 gal- 
lons in the calyx and later cover 
  Honey bees have been poisoned 
by spraying trees in bloom dur- 
ing the pink spray. The arsenate 
of lead may be omitted in the 
pink spray if it has been used in 
an earlier spray. 
  If any marked changes in see- 
ondI brood control are recom- 
mended, notice will be given in 
these columns at a later date. 
Q UESTION: What is the solu- 
     tion to our present unor- 
ganized price - depressing apple 
selling program ? 
  Answered byv Mr. Stevenson at 
New York Horticultural Society 
Annual Convention. (1) Attain 
parity prices through further de- 
valuation and continue by man- 
aged currency as has been done 
successfully by England. (2) One 
cent per bushel compulsory ap- 
pIe advertising tax (grower ad- 
ministered). (3) Development of 
a cooperative selling organiza- 
tion by Department of Farms & 
Mlarkets for those who may de- 
sire to use it. (4) Increase con- 
sumption by (a) better employ- 
ment; (b) more active private 
enterp)rise; (c) getting govern- 
ment out of the red. (5) Restate 
the feeling of growers for the 
past decade, that all government 
agriculture workers cease saying 
"Now is a good time to plant an 
apple orchard." (6) Declare an 
open season on all apple tree 
agents. (7) The apple grading 
and sizing law to apply to all 
open packages as well as to 
closed packages. (They do it with 
-From N. Y. Society Annual Re- 
Effect of Sulphur Dust and 
       Sprays On Apple Trees 
E XPERIMENTS at Co r n e ll 
    University, New York, indi- 
cate that finely divided sulphur 
dust has relatively little influence 
on the rate of photosynthesis of 
the leaves of an entire tree. Lime 
sulphur, on the other hand, as a 
spray may seriously inhibit the 
food manufacturing ability of the 
foliage under certain conditions, 
even though it causes little or no 
apparent burning. 
  Results  of  the   experiment 
showed what many practical or- 
chardists have observed, namely, 
that though sulphur (lust may 
cause some leaf scorch during 
extremely hot weather, leaf burn- 
ing experienced with such ma- 
terial is usually less than found 
where lime sulphur has been 
used. The foliage of dusted trees 
remains glossy and (lark green in 
appearance, and the fruit is like- 
ly to finish better than with the 
less mild material. However, it is 
often more difficult to get control 
of apple scab with the dust than 
with the lime sulphur. 
   The Effect of Dilute Lime 
        Sulphur Sprays 
  At the Ohio Experiment Sta- 
tion it was found that dilute liq- 
uid. lime sulphur sprays may 
cause marked reduction in the 
apparent rate of food manufac- 
ture in apple leaves. For three to 
five days after treatment, even 
though no visible burning occur- 
red, when the maximum     tem- 
perature reaches 90 to 100 de- 
grees F. reduction and assimila- 
tion usually occurs regardless of 
the spray concentration. The rate 
of photosynthesis of s p r a y e d 
leaves showed a reduction from 
the first day after treatment. 
  A weak dilution of 1-100 of 
lime sulphur may cause a marked 
reduction in food manufacture 
when the temperature exceeds 90 
degrees F. (luring each of the 
four days after the experiment. 
  The rate of food making should 
not be confused with burning. 
Stronger lime sulphur 1-40 will 
cause more visible injury to the 
leaves than the wveaker solution. 
Q   UESTION: Will it pay to 
     grow  apples at prices re- 
ceived in 1938 and 1939? 
  Prof. De Graff: In 1938, 22 ap- 
pIe growers keeping cost ac- 
counts in coop)eration with the 
college, produced apples at a net 
cost of 57 cents per bushel. Their 
average yield was 173 bushels pe; 
acre. The apples sold for 64 cents 
per bushel net to the farmer, or 
7 cents above the cost. The apple 
enterprise on these farms return- 
ed 44 cents for each hour of labor 
used in growing, harvesting and 
  In 1937, with the same yield 
per acre (173 bushels of packed 
fruit), the cost account farmers 
produced apples at a cost of 61 
cents per bushel. These apples re- 
turned the growers 46 cents, or 
15 cents less than cost. The ap- 
ple enterprise in that year re- 
turned only 16 cents per hour of 
labor, while the cost of labor was 
31 cents. 
  1939 results are not yet avail- 
able but promise to be even less 
satisfactory than 1937. In years 
such as these only growers wh, 
can get high yields at low price 
can make a profit. 
-From New York State Horti- 
cultural Society Annual Report. 
May, 1940 

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