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Cranefield, Frederic (ed.) / Wisconsin horticulture
Vol. I (September 1910/August 1911)

Wisconsin horticulture, vol. 1, no. 9: May, 1911,   pp. [1]-16 PDF (7.2 MB)

Page 10

   Q.-1lease give me a list of na- 
 tive Iluis tlat are self fertilizing? 
   A.-The (lImltin iof self-sterility 
 of American plinis has been worked 
 out ('Xlllrinlintalty in :i 10n ier of 
 Experiment Stations, :1nd1 with reýsult 
 which have been very 1l1)1'h ilgainist 
 the plantillg of any ,of olr native 
 phlins sin,_dy aind delelleding uipon 
 then\ for self-fert ilizn1tion.  I  wix hll 
 not ('lir, to  advise iu  ll-  liating  of 
 any Anericaln  llhis alone and ex- 
 pec(t that rl)nunier) ivl\'  c'rolJ  \vIs lW 1 
 be obtai ned. 
   "lbh re  tire  SOllw  \'arictlh.s  whichl are, 
 to an extent selif-fertile, but the fld- 
 lowing table taken frona work do0ne( at 
 the Vcrnioint stltion wolhld indicate 
 that thit plssihiliih-ij (it' :i fruit (cropl 
 when the-se vX'lrieties are Ilanlted aloli' 
 would be very sinall. Thin following 
 results were obtained froml using the 
 various typle's Iof wild or nllati' plIllns, 
 giving vaeih of the separate classes 
 recognized as being distinct fronm each 
 other by leading horticulturists. 
   Of the 18 varieties of the comnmonI 
wild or American phunis, olit of 1700 
blossoms only one set fruit wihen left 
to self-pollinate. Of 1R blossoms of 
the Nigra plum to which the variety 
Aitkin belongs, none set fruit.    Of 
the Miner group, to which the variety 
Surprise belongs, out of 462 iblossoms 
on five varieties only one set fruit. 
On the Wild Goose plumli, which is 
grown to some extent, of 11 varieties 
and 1300 blossoms, none set fruit. 
  It will be seen from this table that 
the   statements   nuide  above   are 
founded upon results which have been 
obtained after careful experimenta- 
tion as to the self-sterility of the 
American plum. 
                PROF. J. G. MooRi.. 
  Q.--May I ask a question to be 
answered   ill WISCONSIN     IIORTICU L- 
TUREf   I have an orchard of about 
18 trees of which five are Duchess. 
on which the bark rots away in places 
near the ground. Two years ago I 
manured the trees quite heavy; that 
is, I put the manure right around the 
trees. Now, did the manure do it, 
or was it something else, and is there 
anything I can do? 
  A.-It is a difficult thing to attri- 
bute such rotting of trees at the base 
to, tny lio "110 1lise' without "l critical 
(xnillnination in the orchard. Canker- 
uig  at til ilose (If  trees  slich  :Ii- de' 
.'l'il'edI.  IlI)  resuIt  from  ,ny' one1, o(f 
ýe\'vril  ca IISes. W hile  II1na lll'illfr 
heavily aroundl the tree is; not geil- 
(Tally advised it is  iit Ipro aIlble  thai t 
the  Inin.ilrv  was  fiv(  dir,.cl  v'IIso  of. 
lhl' injury. 
   W hat we  are i nore  parItiihll rly  il- 
 here-sted in is the ]priniary  V'i111( ,  ,i f 
 tile injury. "Rot" organismsl1, fnlli. 
 -ulI  is S11 lhaero1)sis  (causing  M)iack 
 rio, the u111'teri'i If fire blight, and 
 others, may hlave follow(ed after the 
 primary ininry lind ac't'atillted it. 
 The lpritln'Yr ciause may have been lof 
 inil r imlportan'e in  itseIf: a 1 11 - 
 l'lhl i'ill injury '  hell ls birluisinlg  whlien 
 tlhe tree was set out, gnlawing 1) y mice 
 or rabbits, or "barking" in c.ultivat- 
 ing aronad1 the tree,-in any on((0 of 
 which cases the sulbs('tulnt Invasion 
 (If the fingais lll'galiisln through the 
 WVOind iniay have cautsed (Ih( dhstric- 
 tive "rotting" of the plant tissues. 
 The. bacterial blight may attack water 
 slroilts which arise from tihe base of 
 the tree or froo rolots and the blight 
 pass thence to the parent ste'lll or 
 root. Another possible caiuise is that 
 of sun s('lld(l which seclls to ile "'rO' 
 prevalent with  the smooth    barked 
 varieties of trel's explosedl to strong 
 Sun light. 
   Ihowever, I. 11nl inclined  to  ielieve 
that fhe trouble is what is known as 
('rown-rot or Collar-rot, a fruit-tree 
injury which usually begins at tile 
collar near the ground and frequently 
at the uppermost roots, anll extends 
irregularly both up and down. brown- 
ing and killing bark and wood. This 
trouble is primarily due to adverse 
climatic and soil conditions, result- 
ing in winter-injury. A moist, warni 
autimin following a drought induces 
late growth.   A  severe winter will 
injure  the  trees mechanically    by 
freezing the relatively large quanti- 
ties of water thus present in the cam- 
bitun region, ending in the death of 
the parts or a girdling and conse- 
quent death of the whole trees. Rot- 
ting of the parts follows, due to the 
introduction of fungus organisms as 
described above. 
  The relative maturity of the tissues 
in  addition  to  the   constitutional 
hardincss of tue tr'e prpbably deter- 
mines its resistance to low tempera- 
tures.  General preventive measures 
Great Northern Nursery 
Company, Baraboo, Wis. 
Write for Catalogue and Price - List. 
    Salzer's Famous 
    French Coffee 
    A wholesome drinkl The healthiest 
    ever: you can grow it in your own gat- 
    den on a small patch 10 feet by 10, pro- 
    ducing 60 lbs. or more. Ripens in Wis 
    consni n0 days. Used in great quan- 
    tities in France, Germany and all over 
    Send 15 cents in stamps &ma Wewill 
    mail you a package giving full culture 
    direetions, as also our Manmoth seed 
    cautlog free; or send 81 cents and get, 
    in ad ltion to above, oIo00 kernels an- 
    mur  able vegetable and flowerseeds- 
    enO~h for bushels of luclIowdlfterent 
    ve=uabl% and brilliant flowers. 
2a Souh auIk &L     Le 011,08 WI% " 
The Great 
Nursery Co. 
      Sells First-Class 
  Wisconsin Grown Trees 
  Our Trees Live. We had all op- 
portunlity to colnilare 500 of our 
Wisconsin grown trees with a shini- 
Jarlotof all Eastern Nursery. At 
the end of the season only 52 per 
,.elit of the eastern grown stock was 
alive, while 95 per cent of ours lived 
and grew. Moral: blily home grown 
stock anli avhli loss. (Or trees are 
HARDY. and our sto)ck is HEAL- 
THY. A Connparlsoln will prove 
that our stock has not tile willowy 
and watery soft growth of southern 
or easterll grown stock. 
  Every tree and shrllh is packed 
enltrely tinltder cover, fiee froln ex- 
pLosuore to Still alli will(1, 
"None Better Seeds" 
Sheboygan,   Wisconsin 
May, 1911 

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