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Cranefield, Frederic (ed.) / Wisconsin horticulture
Vol. I (September 1910/August 1911)

Wisconsin horticulture, vol. 1, no. 9: May, 1911,   pp. [1]-16 PDF (7.2 MB)

Page 3

careful propagation, and with gratify- 
ing results. 
  For the first ten years of its culture 
it was grown on sandy soil, some of 
it river bottom land. The past ten 
farther north in Iowa on a clay loam 
and the results have been substanti- 
ally the same. We now have some 
plants growing under irrigation in 
the Yakima Valley, Washington, and 
they are reported doing well, so I 
think we may be able later to furnish 
those fellows out there a square meal 
of berries, and let them   know that 
weN around the Minnesota line can 
produce something beside hot air. We 
havie marketed 2,500 quarts from   a 
half acre for three successive seasons. 
()ne year, when conditions were fa- 
virable, have increased that to 3,000. 
Hlave  picked   individual specimens 
wihieh measured four inches in cir- 
,uniference, so it does not occasion 
the grower to feel small about it. It 
has a long fruiting season, generally 
about six weeks. One year we mar- 
keted  fruit for seven    weeks and 
ticked a few   berries for a longer 
Iiie. Thlis, I think, is as ne:i' an 
:ipiroach to ever bearing as I hixv 
,over made with it.   Since I began 
fruiting the Crimson Beauty I have 
never had a crop failure until tli 
Iot season. The berry rallied from 
lie first. frost, but wouhld't froim the 
i\,, following. 
  I have referred to inc for reply a 
!,,tthr of inquiry frin Prof. Beach of 
\rues, concerning the Alton red rasp- 
1,erry which Mr. Gilbertson of Mason 
it*y is now advertising. I sdld Mr. 
  i ilbertson  Crimson Beauty  plants 
  oe years ago which he has propa- 
  ited and fruited since then. They 
  iii now to have, blossonmed out as 
  , Alton Improived red raspberry. 
  h'y the necessity of this reehristen- 
  g I do not know, for the Crimison 
I .auty is si rely a berry whlich call 
  mud by its own name and on its 
  ,n merits. We are all familiar with 
  tat has been said concerning the 
  rits of the strawberry. 
  That is largely our opinion here 
  Mapledale on the raspberry qus- 
Ii n. We have discarded other varie- 
ti-s and grow that exclusively. There 
e1y be a better one but we have not 
f,'nd it yet.-Paper read at N. Iowa 
IRrt. Soc. by W. E. Dickinson. 
    Although beans will grow well on 
 alniost any land that will produce 
 the principal cereal crops, they are 
 especially useful in utilizing and im- 
 proving thin land.    They prefer a 
 heavy clay loam that is well drained. 
 T'he most desirable soils for bean3 
 are clay loarns or soils overlying 
 limestone. Gravelly soil may be used 
 if the gravel is not too coarse, but 
 muck soils and soils very rich in 
 humus are likely    to produce too 
 mnhlu vine and too little seed. Low, 
 wet, or poorly drained soils can not 
 be expected to give good results. A 
 twenty-five bushel crop of beans con- 
 tains abomt 56.2 pounds of nitrogen, 
 l:t.5 pounds of phosphoric acid and 
 22 pounds of potash, but as the ni- 
 trogen is largely obtained from   the 
 .iir the crop is iiot an exhausting one 
 to the land. 
   It is impossible to tell which of 
 the many    varieties of beans will 
 prove best for a given locality until 
 a careful test has been muade. The 
 Choice Navy variety matured about 
 September 17, at the Virginia sta- 
 tion, and produced the highest aver- 
 age yield, 22.5 bushels. It is some- 
 tiine~s thought that the Kidney beans 
 thirive on heavier and stronger soils 
 than those best adapted to the smaller 
 white beans.   Tests toade in New 
 York failed to verify this view, but 
 indicated that there was a great dif- 
 ference of productivity of the dif- 
 ferent varieties of beaus on any given 
 soil. No regularity of results was 
 observed which justified the restric- 
 lion (f plantings on any given soil to 
 any type of beau. 
 Bteans produce best oi an inverted 
 'lover soud, aind in New   York are 
 usually given this position in a clo- 
 ver, bean, wheat rotation. \Vhere corn 
 and  potatoes are grown    they are 
 sometimes given a part of a clover 
 sod and followed by beans, making 
 the rotation one of four years. Where 
 the bean crop is to be followed by 
 wheat the pea and medium varieties 
 are preferred, because their earlier 
 maturity permits their removal from 
 the land early enough for thorough 
 preparation for wheat.   The larger 
 varieties that hold the land longer 
may be followed by corn or potatoes. 
In Michigan, a similar three-year 
rotation is followed, but it is suggest- 
ed that some alsike and timothy be 
mixed with the clover that the hay 
crop may be followed by pasture, thus 
giving at different four-year rotation 
especially suited to Michigan condi- 
   As the bean crop is not planted 
 until I]lte in the spring, the prepara- 
 tiou of tile soil is often delayed, but 
 early plowing is essential to the best 
 resullt.  After plowing, the    land 
 should receive frequent cultivation 
 for five or six weeks to put it into 
 thle list ,<possille  tilth,  kill  weeds, 
 fill( consexrve iioisture, especially as 
 the crop should not be deeply cuilti- 
 vated later. 
   If bens usre a rown oil light, sandy 
 soils or others lacking in fertility, it 
 will be well to top-dress witlh fine or 
 well-rotted mianure, aufter plowing, at 
 the rate of six to eight loads per 
 acre, or even imore than this if a 
 manure spreamder is not used. This 
 may be suppleilented by coiiercial 
 fertilizers, supplying froii fifteen to 
 twenty piounlds of imiriate of potash 
 and twenty to thirty pounds phos- 
 pihumric acid per acre, mixed with the 
 inanure as it is scattered. Tests of 
 fertilizers made by New York farm- 
 ers gave exceedingly variable results 
 a:ndi indicated that there was danger 
 that the stand might be injured by 
 fertilizers. This is especially true of 
 potash, and in dry scaisonms sufficient 
 moisture should be i~r-enti to dis- 
 solve the plant food if bemlefit rather 
 than injury is to result. 
 As beans are legumnes, the best re- 
 suilts can be obtained from them only 
 when nodule-producing organisms are 
 present in the soil or are introduced 
 by the application of soil from fields 
 that have ahleady grown successful 
 bean crops.  Inoculation with pure 
 culturees has g'iven variable results. In 
 a Virginial experimnent the results 
 failed to indicate a mnarked benefit 
 from such inoculation. 
 Early planting of beans is likely to 
 result in the rotting of the seed as 
 they are placed in cold or wet soil. 
 Even if germnination shiuil be suc- 
 cessful and the stand good, it is likely 
 to be uneven, and the stronger plants 
will ripen earlier and render success- 
May, 1911 

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