University of Wisconsin Digital Collections
Link to University of Wisconsin Digital Collections
Link to University of Wisconsin Digital Collections
The State of Wisconsin Collection

Page View

Cranefield, Frederic (ed.) / Wisconsin horticulture
Vol. I (September 1910/August 1911)

Wisconsin horticulture, vol. 1, no. 3: November, 1910,   pp. [1]-16 PDF (7.5 MB)

Page 14

November 1910 
    "How  shall I   bring  my   run- 
down, neglected orchard back to a 
state of iirofitalec production?" is a 
(fucstion which if it were dealt with 
fully Nwould probably need as ;many 
answers as there are neglected or- 
cliards. 'rie very first thing to de- 
termnine is the rea-son for tle exist- 
ing unprotitblle condition. Tie rea- 
son is neglect, of coirse, but negleet 
may    lead to  a great variety of 
troubles, and we must try to find out 
jlust what the troubles iii ain idlivid- 
ual (.ise( lhap|Ja-1 to be befor wve crla 
remiedy them. 
  yt eay is that tle ]hind is low aid 
poorly drain(j1 andl that the trees 
suffer front spring frosts atiid "wet 
feet."  If so, that piece of grounl 
was never nmeant for lila apple or- 
as much potash" as twenty crops of 
wheat would remove counting grain 
and straw with an annual average 
yield of fifteen  bushels per acre. 
Where the trees are compelled to 
compete with other crops for a sup- 
ply of food and water, it is no won- 
der that they sometimes succumb, 
considering the heavy demand they 
themselves nmust make in order to 
make good yields. 
  Not infrequently the neglected or- 
clard  is unprofitable because the 
trees are so erowded together thlt 
there is a struggle for bare distance 
between one tree in(i its neighbor. 
The results of this urowded condition 
may be seen in the long leggy tops, 
climbing skyward like forest trees, 
in the struggle for liglht and i air. 
Such an orchard,i \ith the tops out of 
ing has very likely not been known 
to the orchard, and what fruit there 
is, is scabby, deformed and wormy. 
Pruning    has probably   been  over- 
looked, -r if it has been done at all, 
it has been (lone with an axe in a 
sort of kill or cure way, which left 
the trees in worse condition than be- 
   Much is being accomplished nowa- 
 days with these old neglected or- 
 chards by renovation. By renovation 
 is meant plowing, pruning, fertiliz- 
 ing, spraying, digging out the borers, 
 and in short giving the orchard a 
 thorough house-cleaning. 
   After the brush is cleared away 
 (and it is surprising to see how large 
 a quantity of l)riinings a few neg- 
 lected trees will yield), the orchard 
 should be plowed ands harrowed alnd 
 tihe surface made fine. Any one who 
 has broken a twenty-year old blue 
 grass sod in an orchard will appreci- 
 ate why the trees suffer from it. A 
 few surface roots may lie (cut by this 
 plowing. Never mind that but go 
 ahea(l. (let the ground fine and 
 keep it cultivated till hnil-sumnlier, 
 then sow a cover crop which will pro- 
 tect the ground till it is turned un- 
der the following spring. 
  Along with the cultivation should 
go a liberal aniount of fertilizer. In 
De Soto Plum Poplar Trial Orchard, Sept. 1910. Planted May 1904 
chard and the best thing to (h1 is to 
cut the trees at once and get some 
good fire-wood at least, and then set 
out some young trees in it umore fa- 
vorable location. 
   Tie trees may have cea1sed to liel.r 
fruit because the land, possibly never 
any too good, has been called upon 
to furnish continuous crops of hay 
or grain as well as to supliort tile 
apple trees. It has been sbown by 
pretty conclusive  experiments thait 
apple trees set at the rate of thirty- 
five to the acre (which wouil equal 
I cing set tbirty-five feet apart (enll 
way) yielding fifteen buslhels of ai- 
pies per tree, draw from  tie soil in 
twventy crops more than "twice as 
much nitrogen, half as mucli again 
of phosphoric adl nearly three t liies 
renth, anid tile ends of the branches 
interlocking, is impossible to care 
for properly and( can never lie made 
to yield satisfactorily while in such 
   Beside the  condition spoken of 
above, there is another whole class 
of troublhs brought about by the 
onlission of those operations of what 
may   lie terried  orchard  hygiene, 
which are performed by the comnmer- 
cial grower is a matter of course. 
The trees rnay be half choked in a 
thick tough old sod; this sod is 
liable to harbor mice and rabbits 
and lhe trees inay be suffering from 
their attacks as well as from borers, 
which tlurive and multiply under the 
conditions furnished by heavy sod 
close Ul) to the tree trunks. Spray- 
    A full line of Fruit and 
       Ornamental Stock 
Get our.Price List before Placing your 
   order. Satisfaction Guaranteed 
Kellogg's Nursery 
Box 77, Janesville, Wisconsin 
Largest Stock. Best Varieties, Best Grade. 
a uar (ltlnteu True. We invIte correspond- 
eni(e from parties Intending to plant. 
   Catalogue and Price List Free. 
Estathltslied 45 Years. FREDONIA, N. Y. 

Go up to Top of Page