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Wisconsin Farmers' Institutes / Wisconsin Farmers' Institutes : a hand-book of agriculture
Bulletin No. 11 (1897)

Craig, J. A.
The horse and its market,   pp. 154-168 PDF (4.5 MB)

Page 162

,     -    It  E   *-l
to look well to the eyesight, as the
chances are that the extra labor im
posed on the ears has its origin in a
defect in one or both of the eyes.
Jaw Bones-Wide, Sharp.-Betweer
the jaw bones there should be suffi.
cient width for the wind pipe and
also enough to allow the head to play
freely on the neck. When the space
between the jaw bones is very nar-
row, it will often be noticed that the
horse carries his head stiffly and in an
awkward position, but when there is
sufficient width in this region the
head is carried freely and gracefully
on the neck. The throttlc and throat
latch should be light, without any un-
natural fullness between the jaw
bones or heaviness at the juncture of
the head and the neck.
Neck-Arched, Xuscled.-A   nicely
moulded and distinctly chiselled neck
carrying the head gracefully, is one
of the most beautiful features of the
ideal light horse. Running towards
the shoulder, the neck should swell
gradually, so as to join the body
smoothly. The windpipe should be
large and  appear distinct from the
rest of the neck, and the upper out-
line of the latter should be sharp.
While the ewe neck is possessed by
many excellent road horses, it is a
defect, as it detracts from the appear-
ance and should be noted as such.
Chest-Deep, Projecting.-In the
light horse that is called upon for fast
work, the chest should be deep rather
than broad. It should give room or
capacity more by depth than by
breadth. The reason for this, is that
the deep chest permits of freer play
of the shoulder blades on the body.
It is easy to see that swift, smooth
action of the fore legs is hardly possi-
ble in the broad-chested horse, mainly
because it throws them too far apart
and out of line with those behind. A
deep chest is an evidence of staying
power. The conformation of such
campaigners as Mary Marshall (2.12),
Nanc7y Hanks (2.09), offer convincing
proof of this.
Shoulden - LAng, Oblique. - The
L formation of the shoulder is one of
athe parts of all light horses that re-
quires critical scanning. To give elas-
ticity to the movement of saddle
horses and to permit of quick aid
I clean action in the roadster, the
I shoulder blade should be long and
eoblique. An upright shoulder gives a
.short, stilted action frequently ac-
1 companied by stumbling, and in a
more or less fertile cause of such
bone diseases an sidebones and ring-
The high action which is desired in
the coach or cob horse and the long
reaching clean action so desirable in
the roadster depend as much on the
obliquity and freedom of movement
of the shoulder as on any other feat-
ure. In addition, a sloping and long
shoulder strengthens the back and
extends the length of the underline.
The muscular development of the
shoulder should also be carefully
noted, if there is an unusual bareness
or lack of muscular covering it would
denote the presence of sweeny.
Fore Legs-Broad, Cordy.-The ap-
pearance of the fore leg from the side
show it to be flat and cordy. The
flatness, due to the tendons being
properly attached, and the clean cut
appearance denote the absence of any
coarseness about the legs. In this
region the leg should be long from
the elbow to the knee, for the reason
that free and clean action follows
such a conformation. In these parts
it will be noted that most of the mus-
cle that extends and flexes the leg is
located between the knee and the el-
bow. If this part is long, the muscle
must necessarily be long and that
produces quick and easy action. The
muscle of the fore arm flexes and ex-
tends the rest of the leg, and in order
that these motions may place with
the least expenditure of power, the
course over which it must travel
should be as short as possible; that
is, the cannon running from the knee
to the fVt4oc4 should he V1wcha Sbp
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