Wisconsin Farmers' Institutes / Wisconsin Farmers' Institutes : a hand-book of agriculture
Bulletin No. 11 (1897)
Craig, J. A.
The horse and its market, pp. 154-168 PDF (4.5 MB)
WISCONSIN FAM Mr' INSTITUTE THIRD DAY. The Institute met at 9 o'clock, March xi. H. A. BRIGGS in the Chair. THE HORSE AND ITS XARKET. Prof. J. A. CRAIG, Expe riment Station, Xadison. * o und1ersa Ot W eAllir_- sbnt- of - - - U- the market, it will be necessary to consider the horse as a mechanism in which the bones are levers, the mus- cles the source of power, and the nervous system the stimulator of the muscles. The horse is valuable in the market, because of his ability to per- form certain kinds of work, and for that reason it is very necessary to know how these features adjust themselves in the performance of work. The Bones as Levers. There are three classes of levers, and these are all represented in the skeleton of the horse. The first class may be said to be represented by a pair of scissors, as the power is ap- plied in the hole for the fingers, and the fulcrum is in the center where the blades are united, and the appli- cation of the power is at the point. This is the most 'advantageous form of leverage, and it is employed in the skeleton of the horse by the parts that are used in the extension of the limbs. The lever of the second class may be said to be represented in every day life by the wheelbarrow. The power is applied at the handles, the weight is in the center, and the ap- plication is at the wheel. This lever- age in the horse enables it to sleep standing, or to stand without feeling the strain. It is the leverage which prevents the joints closing on each other. Due ieverugu ul dgeii onir u cas K represented by a pair of sheep shears. The power is applied at the center, the fulcrum is at one end, and the ap- plication of the power is at the other. This leverage is not common, but it is shown in the action of the lower jaw of the horse. Action of the Xusle& In further consideration of the lev- erage, the attachment of the muscles anu thcir nsutiura oreImnrt and their nature are LMFUZU&MV. As muscles consist of bundles of A- bers, it is easy to understand that when these fibers are long, there is more elasticity than when they are short. The long muscle with long leverage of the bone is more favorable for quick action of speed, while the heavier muscle is more favorable for draft or power. The attachment of the muscles to the skeleton is also of some importance. When the mus- cles by means of the tendons are at- tached to prominences which enable them to work free from the bone that furnish leverage, it is easy to see that the action of the muscles would be freer and more effective, hence in most joints there are prominencies to give the muscles the best attachment. In this connection, it is interesting to study the proportions of the bones of the skeleton to find reasons for the advantages which certain relative pro- portions produce. In general we look for short bones in those parts where the function is simply the transmis- sion of power, while we desire greater - .. -% - . I------ -VMVVWTWI W, I lF MC
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