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Wisconsin Farmers' Institutes / Wisconsin Farmers' Institutes : a hand-book of agriculture
Bulletin No. 11 (1897)

Taylor, F. W.
Apple growing,   pp. 43-52 PDF (2.8 MB)


Page 50


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allowed to grow very high, while the
protection of that belt serves to keep
the wind from blowing the young ap-
ples off.
Prof. Taylor-Do the winds come
from the north that blow the apples
off?
Mr. Boynton-No, from the west
and southwest.
Prof. Taylor-We were speaking of
that question before, and I said that
in general my observation was that
the south wind did the damage. A
very low windbreak on the north at
some distance may not be any Injury,
but I have never been able to see that
it was of any direct use.
Mr. Hyatt-I would like to sustain
the speaker in regard to the north
slope. My observation for fifteen
years has been directed to that mat-
ter, and by all odds the best or-
chards in Sheboygan county today
are on a very steep northern slope.
Mr. Kellogg-What is the best time
to prune nursery trees to promote a
healthy growth and prevent black-
heart?
Prot. Taylor-I do not think there
is danger of blackheart unless you
let the limbs grow to a considerable
size. A man can do the heavy part
of the pruning by simply rubbing off
the buds as they begin forming limbs.
Mr. Kellogg-Are there any sort of
Russian crabs or small fruits that
will do for the northwest?
Prof. Taylor-I believe that the
Russian cherries will prove of very
great value all over the northwest,
but It should be understood that they
are all short lived. I never saw any
that did not begin to show signs of
death after they were planted ten
years, but by replanting and remem-
bering that they are short lived, I be-
lieve that they can be made of great
value. I do not know of any native
Russian grapes. The plums in my
own experience have proven of little
value. Our own native plums and
the croumes from them are best for
this section of the country.
Mr. Coe-Will you name for us the
two Russian cherries most likely to
prove valuable?
Prof. Taylor-I am not able to give
any names that are reliable for those
Russian cherries. The fact is that In
Vladimir and Moscow where they
grow the most of them, they are
grown under the general name of
Vladimir cherries. There are many
different varieties of them. We have
a black cherry which is called the
Vladimir, which in one of the best
there is, but If you should send to
some nursery for Russian varieties,
you might get a Vladimir that Is very
different. I do not know of any that
we could depend upon getting by
name.
Mr. Alsmeyer-If you had some of
these old varieties of seedlings in
your orchard, would yoi go to work
and graft them, or would you grub
them out-trees that in some   e.
are fifty years old?
Prof. Taylor-If I had some that
were hardy in the trunk and seemed
to be healthy, but produced poor
fruit, I would top graft them with
such varieties as do well In this coun-
try.
Mr. Kellogg-We are troubled with
the flat-headed borer in apple trees.
When does it get in, and how can we
prevent It from getting there?
Prof. Taylor-It usually comes
along In the summer time, and the
direct cause of its coming In, I think,
Is sun scald on the south side of the
body of the apple tree, resulting from
the extreme variations In tempera-
ture. I think that the borer comes
Into a diseased tree one hundred
times, where the diseased tree re-
sults from the coming of the borer
once; the wrapping of the tree will
help to keep out the borer.
Mr. Kellogg-My observation Is
that It comes in the first summer It
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