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Wisconsin Dairymen's Association / Eleventh annual report of the Wisconsin Dairymen's Association : held at Elk-horn, Wis., January 31, and February 1 and 2, 1883. Report of the proceedings, annual address of the president, and interesting essays relating to the dairy interests

Curtis, T. D.
Undetermined points in butter-making,   pp. 41-49 PDF (2.0 MB)

Page 45

and scientific experimentation; that we may learn just how 
to make a uniform product, the most of it and the best for 
human consumption. 
When shall we skim? Shall we skim deep, taking a good 
deal of milk, or shall we skim shallow, taking only the 
cream? Shall we skim sweet, or shall we let the milk get 
sour, or even the cream get sour? If sweet, how long before 
souring? If sour, how sour shall we let the milk or the 
cream get. 
How shall we keep the cream before churning? At what 
temperature? Shall it be exposed to the air, or shall the air 
be excluded? Shall it be exposed to the light, or kept in the 
dark? Or shall it be kept not at all. save until we can get it 
into the churn? If kept, shall we stir it occasionally, or 
frequently, or not at all? When shall we churn, when the 
cream is sweet or when it is sour? If sour, what degree of 
acidity? At what temperature shall we churn? Or shall we 
churn cream in different conditions at different temper- 
atures? Is there a different temperature for sweet and 
sour cream, and for different degrees of acidity? Shall 
we secure a certain degree of oxydation before churn- 
ing? How shall we churn? Shall we depend on con- 
cussion, on friction, or on simple agitation to bring the 
butter? Or shall we adopt the method said to be prac- 
ticed in some oriental countries-put the cream in a tight 
sack, bury it in sweet earth, and let the butter come 
without churning? When shall we stop churning? Shall 
we stop it before the butter gathers, or shall we proceed 
after the old method of gathering it into a solid mass? 
There are earnest, positive advocates of both methods. 
How shall we work butter? Or shall we work it not at 
all? If we work it, at what temperature? How much shall 
we work? Shall we do it by hand, or by power? Shall we 
give butter a second working? If so, at what temperature? 
How shall we salt butter? Shall we sprinkle it on when the 
butter is in the granular form, and gently stir it in? Or 
shall we first mass the butter, work out the butter milk and 
then work in the salt? How much salt? Or shall the quan- 
tity be determined by conditions? Shall we use no salt at 
all when we pace our butter to keep? Does salt help retain 

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