Wisconsin Dairymen's Association / Eleventh annual report of the Wisconsin Dairymen's Association : held at Elk-horn, Wis., January 31, and February 1 and 2, 1883. Report of the proceedings, annual address of the president, and interesting essays relating to the dairy interests
Curtis, T. D.
Undetermined points in butter-making, pp. 41-49 PDF (2.0 MB)
WhSoops DAERYMAN's ASSOCIATION. 45 and scientific experimentation; that we may learn just how to make a uniform product, the most of it and the best for human consumption. When shall we skim? Shall we skim deep, taking a good deal of milk, or shall we skim shallow, taking only the cream? Shall we skim sweet, or shall we let the milk get sour, or even the cream get sour? If sweet, how long before souring? If sour, how sour shall we let the milk or the cream get. How shall we keep the cream before churning? At what temperature? Shall it be exposed to the air, or shall the air be excluded? Shall it be exposed to the light, or kept in the dark? Or shall it be kept not at all. save until we can get it into the churn? If kept, shall we stir it occasionally, or frequently, or not at all? When shall we churn, when the cream is sweet or when it is sour? If sour, what degree of acidity? At what temperature shall we churn? Or shall we churn cream in different conditions at different temper- atures? Is there a different temperature for sweet and sour cream, and for different degrees of acidity? Shall we secure a certain degree of oxydation before churn- ing? How shall we churn? Shall we depend on con- cussion, on friction, or on simple agitation to bring the butter? Or shall we adopt the method said to be prac- ticed in some oriental countries-put the cream in a tight sack, bury it in sweet earth, and let the butter come without churning? When shall we stop churning? Shall we stop it before the butter gathers, or shall we proceed after the old method of gathering it into a solid mass? There are earnest, positive advocates of both methods. How shall we work butter? Or shall we work it not at all? If we work it, at what temperature? How much shall we work? Shall we do it by hand, or by power? Shall we give butter a second working? If so, at what temperature? How shall we salt butter? Shall we sprinkle it on when the butter is in the granular form, and gently stir it in? Or shall we first mass the butter, work out the butter milk and then work in the salt? How much salt? Or shall the quan- tity be determined by conditions? Shall we use no salt at all when we pace our butter to keep? Does salt help retain
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