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Northrop, E. B.; Chittenden, H. A., Jr. (ed.) / The Wisconsin lumberman, devoted to the lumbering interests of the northwest
(July, 1874)

Classification of wood,   pp. 393-397 PDF (1.8 MB)

Page 393

T'he Wmeconsn Lumberman.
From the Boston Lumber Trode.
lowing are a few examples of timber
of this class:
I. Pine timber is the wood of vari-
ous species of the genus Pinws, the
best being that of the Red Pine, or
Scottish Fir (Pinus sylvestris), grown
in the north of Europe. This wood
is stiff, strong, and straight-grained,
and well suited for large framing.
Pine timber is also obtained from
various other species, chiefly North
American, of which the best are the
Yellow Pine (Pinus variabilis) and
White Pine (Pinus Strobus). It is
softer and less durable than the Red
Pine of the north of Europe, but
lighter and can be had in larger
Timber similar in its properties to
the best kind of pine is produced by
the Kauri or Cowrie of New Zealand
(Dammara Australis).
II. White Fir, or Deal timber of
the best kind, is the wood of the
Spruce Fir (Abies excelspa), grown in
the north of Europe.
This is an excellent kind of tim-
ber for light framing and joiners'
work, and is specially well suited for
making patterns of machinery.
Among other kinds of spruce fir
applied to the same purposes are
the North American White Spruce
(Abiesalba), and Black Spruce (Abies
LARGE Riyg.-I. Oak timber belongs
to the first subdivision of Tredgold's
system. It is the strongest, tough-
est, aud most lasting of those grown
in temperate climates, and is well
suited for framing in which strength,
toughness, and durability are re-
quired; but it has in general the de-
fect, which is a serious one as regards
machinery, of being subject to warp.
It is obtained from various species
or varieties of the botanical genus
The wood of the oak contains gal-
lie acid, which contributes to the
Jurability of the timber, but corrodes
iron.  Metal fastenings for oak
should therefore be of copper, or its
alloys; or, if of iron, they should be
well coated with zinc.
The following are examples of trees
belonging to Tredgold's second sub-
II. Beech (Fagus sylvatica), com-
mon in Europe.
m. American Plane (Platanus oc-
cidentalis),  common  in  North
IV. Sveamore (Acer pseudo-pla-
tanus), also called Great Maple, and
in Scotland and the north of Eng-
land, Plane; common in Western
All these afford compact wood of
uniform texture. They are valuable
for blocks which have to resist a
crushing force. They last well when
constantly wet (especially beech),
but when alternately wet and dry
they decay rapidly.
LARGE RAYs.-The examples of tim-
ber in this Article belong to the first
subdivision of the second division
according to Tredgold's system, hav-
ing no large distinct medullary rays,
and having the divisions between the
annual rings distinctly marked by a
more porous structure. They are in
general strong, but flexible; and
therefore, in machinery, they are
suitable for pieces in which the
power of bearing shocks is of more
importance than rigidity.
L The Ash (Frarinus excelsior)
furnishes timber whose toughness
and flexibility render it superior to
that of all other European trees for
making handles of tools, shafts of
carriages, spokes of wooden wheels,
and the like; but which is not suffici-
ently stiff and durable to be used in
II. The common Elm ( Ulmus cam-
pestriu)  and smooth-leaved  Elm
(Ulmus glabra) yield timber which is
very durable when constantly wet,
but not when alternately wet and

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