The history of Columbia County, Wisconsin, containing an account of its settlement, growth, development and resources; an extensive and minute sketch of its cities, towns and villages--their improvements, industries, manufactories, churches, schools and societies; its war record, biographical sketches, portraits of prominent men and early settlers; the whole preceded by a history of Wisconsin, statistics of the state, and an abstract of its laws and constitution and of the constitution of the United States
Durrie, D. S.
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HISTORY OF WISCONSIN. absolute in the various tribes inhabiting it. By this treaty it was stipulated that, of the lands relin- quished by the United States, the Indian tribes who have a right to those lands, were quietly to enjoy them; hunting, planting, and dwelling thereon so long as they pleased; but, when those tribes or any of them should be disposed to sell them, or any part of them, they were to be sold only to the United States, and until such sale, the United States would protect all of the tribes in-the quiet enjoyment of their lands against all citizens of the United States, and all other white persons who might intrude on the same. At the same time all the tribes acknowledged them- selves to be under the protection of the United States, and no other person or power what- soever. The treaty also prohibited any citizen of the United States, or any other white man, settling upon the lands relinquished by the general government; and such person was to be considered as out of the protection of the United States; and the Indian tribe on whose land the settlement might be made, could drive off the settler, or punish him in such manner as it might see fit. It will be seen that the Indians were acknowledged to have an unquestionable title to the lands they occupied until that right should be extinguished by a voluntary cession to the general government; and the constitution of the United States, by declaring treaties already made, as well as those to be made, to be the supreme law of the land, adopted and sanctioned previous treaties with the Indian nations, and consequently admitted their rank among those powers who are capable of making treaties. The several treaties which had been made between commissioners on the part of the United States and various nations of Indians, previous to the treaty of Greenville, were generally restricted to declarations of amity and friendship, the establishment and confirming of bounda- ries, and the protection of settlements on Indian lands; those that followed were generally for a cession of lands and provisions made for their payment. It is proposed to notice the several treaties that took place after that held at Greenville, showing in what way the territory of the present state, came into possession of the government. As will be seen hereafter, it required trea- ties with numerous tribes of Indians to obtain a clear, undisputed title, as well as many years before it was fully accomplished. i. A treaty was held at St. Louis, November 3, 1804, between the Sacs and Foxes and the United States. William Henry Harrison was acting commissioner on the part of the govern- ment. By the provisions of the treaty, the chiefs and head men of the united tribes ceded to the United States a large tract on both sides of the Mississippi, extending on the east from the mouth of the Illinois to the head of that river, and thence to the Wisconsin; and including on- the west considerable portions of Iowa and Missouri, from the mouth of the Gasconade north- ward. In what is now the state of Wisconsin, this grant embraced the whole of the present counties of Grant and La Fayette and a large portion of Iowa and Green counties. The lead region was included in this purchase. In consideration of this cession, the general government agreed to protect the tribes in the quiet enjoyment of their land, against its own citizens and all others who should intrude on them. The tribes permitted a fort to be built on the upper side of the Wisconsin river, near its mouth, and granted a tract of land two miles square, adjoin- ing the same. The government agreed to give them an annuity of one thousand dollars per annum. The validity of this treaty was denied by one band of the Sac Indians, and this cession of land became, twenty-eight years after, the alleged cause of the Black Hawk war. 2. Another treaty was held at Portage des Sioux, now a village in St. Charles county, Mis- souri, on the Mississippi river, September 13, 1815, with certain, chiefs of that portion of the Sac nation then residing in Missouri, who, they said, were compelled since the commencement of 214
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