The history of Columbia County, Wisconsin, containing an account of its settlement, growth, development and resources; an extensive and minute sketch of its cities, towns and villages--their improvements, industries, manufactories, churches, schools and societies; its war record, biographical sketches, portraits of prominent men and early settlers; the whole preceded by a history of Wisconsin, statistics of the state, and an abstract of its laws and constitution and of the constitution of the United States
Durrie, D. S.
The public domain, pp. -230 PDF (10.1 MB)
THE 'PUBLIC DOMAIN. 21 All the claiming states finally ceded their interests to the general government, giving the latter a perfect title, subject only to the rights of the Indians. The deed of cession from Virginia was dated March I, 1784. The other states ceded their claims, some before this date, others subsequent thereto. Virginia made a number of stipulations in her deed of cession; among others, that the French and Canadian inhabitants and the neighboring villages who had professed themselves citizens of Virginia, should have their possessions and title confirmed to them, and be protected in the enjoyment of their rights and liberties; thP.t 15O,OOO acres of land near the rapids of the Ohio, should be reserved for that portion of her state troops which had reduced the country; and about 3,5oo,ooo acres between the rivers Scioto and Little Miami be reserved for bounties to her troops on the continental establishment. In consequence of certain objectionable stipulations made by Virginia as to the division of the territory into states, the deed of cession was referred back to that state with a recommenda- tion from congress that these stipulations should be altered. On the 3oth of December, 1788, Virginia assented to the wish of congress, and formally ratified and confirmed the fifth article of compact which related to that subject, and tacitly gave her consent to the whole ordinance of 1787. The provisions of this ordinance have since been applied to all the territories of the United States lying north of the 36Q 40'. After the adoption of the constitution of the United States the the new congress, among its earliest acts, passed one, recognizing the binding force of the ordi- nance of 1787. Of this ordinance it has been said:, "It was based on the principles of civil liberty, maintained in the magna charta of England, re-enacted in the bill of rights, and incorporated in our differ- ent state constitutions. It was the fundamental law of the constitution, so to speak, of the great northwest, upon which were based, and with which harmonized all our territorial enactments, as" well as our subsequent state legislation, and, moreover, it is to that wise, statesman-like document that we are indebted for much of our prosperity and greatness." After the close of the revolutionary war, enterprising individuals traversed the whole country which had been ceded to the government, and companies were formed to explore and settle the fertile and beautiftil lands beyond the Ohio; but the determination of the British cabinet not to evacuate the western posts, was well known, and had its effect on the people who were disposed to make settlements. The western tribes were also dissatisfied and threatened war, and efforts were made by the government to settle the difficulties. A grand council was held at the mouth of Detroit river in December, 1787, which did not result favorably, and two treaties were subsequently held, which were not respected by the savages who were parties to them. Soon an Indian war ensued, ihich resulted at first disastrously to the American troops under Generals Harmar and St. Clair, but finally with success to the American arms under General Wayne. The treaty of Greenville followed. It was concluded August 3, 1795. At this treaty therewere present eleven hundred and thirty chiefs and warriors. It was signed by eighty-four chiefs and General Anthony Wayne, sole commissioner of the United States. One of the provisions of the treaty was'that in consid- eration of'the peace then established, and the cessions and relinquishments of lands made by the tribes of Indians, and to manifest the liberality of the United States as the great means of render- ing this peace strong and perpetual, the United States relinquished their claims to all other Indian lands northward of the river Ohio, eastward of the Mississippi, and westward and south- ward of the great lakes and the waters united by them, except certain reservations and portions before purchased of the Indians, none of which were within the present limits of this state. The Indian title to the whole of what is now Wisconsin, subject only to certain restrictions, became.
Based on date of publication, this material is presumed to be in the public domain.| Original materal owned by South Central Library System.| For information on re-use see: http://digital.library.wisc.edu/1711.dl/Copyright