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The history of Columbia County, Wisconsin, containing an account of its settlement, growth, development and resources; an extensive and minute sketch of its cities, towns and villages--their improvements, industries, manufactories, churches, schools and societies; its war record, biographical sketches, portraits of prominent men and early settlers; the whole preceded by a history of Wisconsin, statistics of the state, and an abstract of its laws and constitution and of the constitution of the United States

Giles, H. H.
Commerce and manufactures,   pp. [198]-209 PDF (5.4 MB)

Page 206

      In 1876, Milwaukee produced 43,175 barrels of high wines, or distilled
spirits, and the
 state of Wisconsin 51,959 barrels. In 1870, the former produced 1io8,845
barrels of beer and
 22,867 barrels of distilled spirits, and in the same year the state of Wisconsin
produced i89,664
 barrels of beer and 36,145 barrels of distilled spirits.
      Porcelain clay, or kaolin, is found in numerous places in Wood and
Marathon counties. The
 mineral is found in but few places in the United States in quantities sufficient
to justify the
 investment of capital necessary to manufacture it. In the counties mentioned,
the deposits are
 found in extensive beds, and only capital and enterprise are needed to make
their development
 profitable.  Clay of superior quality for making brick and of fair quality
for pottery, is
 found in numerous localities. The famous "Milwaukee brick," remarkable
for their beautiful
 cream color, is made from a fine clay which is abundant near Milwaukee,
and is found in exten-
 sive beds at Watertown, Whitewater, Edgerton, Stoughton, and several places
on the lake shore
 north of Milwaukee. At Whitewater and some other places the clay is used
with success for the
 making of pottery ware. Water-lime, or hydraulic cement, occurs in numerous
places throughout
 the state. An extensive bed covering between one and two hundred acres,
and of an indefinite
 depth, exists on the banks of the Milwaukee river, and not over one and
a half miles from the city
 limits of Milwaukee. The cement made from the rock of this deposit is first-class
in quality, and
 between twenty and thirty thousand barrels were made and sold last year.
The capacity of the
 works for reducing the rock to cement has been increased to 500 barrels
per day.  Stones suita-
 ble for building purposes are widely distributed throughout the state, and
nearly every town has
 its available quarry. Many of these quarries furnish stone of fine quality
for substantial and
 permanent edifices. The quarry at Prairie du Chien furnished the stone for
the capital building
 at Mvadison, which equals in beauty that of any state in the Union. At Milwaukee,
 Madison, La Crosse, and many other places are found quarries of superior
building stone.
 Granite is found in extensive beds in Marathon and Wood counties, and dressed
 exhibited at the " Centennial " last year, attracted attention
for their fine polish.  Marbles of
 various kinds are likewise found in the state. Some of them are beginning
to attract attention
 and are likely to prove valuable. The report of Messrs. Foster & Whitney,
United States geol-
 ogists, speaks of quarries on the Menomonee and Michigamig rivers as affording
beautiful varie-
 ties and susceptible of a high polish. Richland county contains marble,
but its quality is gen-
 erally considered inferior.
                                       WATER POWERS.
     Wisconsin is fast becoming a manufacturing state. Its forests of pine,
oak, walnut, maple,
ash, and other valuable woods used for lumber, are well-nigh inexhaustible.
Its water-power for
driving the wheels of machinery is not equaled by that of any state in the
northwest. The Lower
Fox river between Lake Winnebago and Green Bay, a distance of thirty-five
miles, furnishes
some of the best facilities for;manufacturing enterprise in the whole country.
Lake Winnebago
as a reservoir gives it a great and special advantage, in freedom from liability
to freshets and
droughts. The stream never varies but a few feet from its -highest to its
lowest stage, yet gives
a steady flow. The Green 'Bay and Mississippi canal company has, during the
last twenty-five
years, constructed numerous dams, canals and locks, constituting very valuable
All the property of that company has been transferred to the United States
government, which
has entered upon a system to render the Fox and Wisconsin rivers navigable
to the Mississippi.
The fall between the lake and Depere is one hundred and fifty feet, and the
water can be utilized

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