The history of Columbia County, Wisconsin, containing an account of its settlement, growth, development and resources; an extensive and minute sketch of its cities, towns and villages--their improvements, industries, manufactories, churches, schools and societies; its war record, biographical sketches, portraits of prominent men and early settlers; the whole preceded by a history of Wisconsin, statistics of the state, and an abstract of its laws and constitution and of the constitution of the United States
Hoy, P. R.
Fauna of Wisconsin, pp. 134-139 PDF (2.7 MB)
FAUNA OF WISCONSIN. Black river, December, 1863. Badgers are now nearly gone, and in a few years more, the only badgers found within the state, will be two legged ones. Beavers are yet numerous in the small lakes in the northern regions. Wolverines are occasionally met with in the northern forests. Bears, wolves, and deer, will continue to flourish in the northern and central counties, where underbrush, timber, and small lakes abound. All large animals will soon be driven by civilization out of Wisconsin. The railroad and improved firearms will do the work, and thus we lose the primitive denizens of the forest and prairies. PECULIARITIES OF THE BIRD FAUNA. The facts recorded in this paper, were obtained by personal observations within fifteen miles of Racine, Wisconsin, latitude 42046' north, longitude 870 48' west. This city is situated on thewestern shore of Lake Michigan, at the extreme southern point of the heavy lumbered district, the base of which restson Lake Superior. Racine extends six miles further into the lake than Milwaukee,' and two miles further than Kenosha. At this point the great prairie approaches near the lake from the west. The extreme rise of the mercury in summer, is from 9o9 to ioo Q Fahrenheit. The isothermal line comes further north in summer, and retires further south in winter than it does east of the great lakes, which physical condition will sufficiently explain the remarkable peculiarities of its animal life, the overlapping, as it were, of two distinct faunas. More especially is this true of birds, that are enabled to change their locality with the greatest facility. Within the past thirty years, I have collected and observed over three hundred species of birds, nearly half of all birds found in North America. Many species, considered rare in other sections, are found here in the greatest abundance. A striking peculiarity of the ornithological fauna of this section, is that southern birds go farther north in summer, while northern species go farther south in winter than they do east of the lakes. Of summer birds that visit us, I will ennumerate a few of the many that belong to a more southern latitude in the Atlantic States. Nearly all nest with us, or, at least, did some years ago. Yellow-breasted chat, Ic/eria virdis; mocking bird, M/fimus pollygloftus; great Carolina wren, Thriolhorus ludovicianus; prothonotary warbler, Protonolaria ci/rea; summer red bird, Pyrangia est4va; wood ibis, Tantalus loeu/a/or. Among Arctic birds that visit us in winter are: Snowy owl, Nyc/ea nivea; great gray owl, Syrnium cinerus; hawk owl, Surnia ulula; Arctic three-toed woodpecker, Picoides arc/ius;*banded three-toed woodpecker, Picoides hirsuius; mag- pie, Pica hudsonica; Canada jay, Perisorius canadensis; evening grosbeak, HesJeriPhona vesjper.. tina; Hudson titmouse, Parus hudsonicus; king eder, Soma/eria spec/abilis; black-throated diver, Colymbus arcdicus; glaucus gull, Laurus glaucus. These examples are sufficient to indicate the rich avi fauna of Wisconsin. It is doubtful if there is another locality where the Canada jay and its associates visit in winter where the mock- ing bird nests in summer, or where the hawk owl flies silently over the spot occupied during the warmer days by the summer red bird and the yellow-breasted chat. But the ax has already leveled much of the great woods, so that there is now a great falling off in numbers of our old familiar feathered friends. It is now extremely doubtful if such a collection can ever again be mad( within the boundaries of this state, or indeed, of any other. 139
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