The history of Columbia County, Wisconsin, containing an account of its settlement, growth, development and resources; an extensive and minute sketch of its cities, towns and villages--their improvements, industries, manufactories, churches, schools and societies; its war record, biographical sketches, portraits of prominent men and early settlers; the whole preceded by a history of Wisconsin, statistics of the state, and an abstract of its laws and constitution and of the constitution of the United States
Oldenhage, H. H.
Climatology of Wisconsin, pp. -128 PDF (3.9 MB)
Hoy, P. R.
Trees, shrubs and vines, pp. 128-134 PDF (3.1 MB)
1HISTORY OF WISCONSIN. kee river, even while the area from which it receives its supply is but partially cleared, that the proprietors of most of the mills and factories have found it necessary to resort to the-use of steam, at a largely increased yearly cost, to supply the deficiency of water-power in dry seasons of the year." "What has happened to the Milwaukee river, has happened to all the other water courses in the state from whose banks tire forest has been removed; and many -farmers who selected land uqon which there waý a living brook of clear, pure water, now find these brooks dried up during a considerable portion of the year., Districts stripped of their forest are said to be more exposed than before to loss of harvests, to droughts and frost. "Hurricanes, before unknown, sweep unopposed over the regions thus denuded, carrying terror and devastation in their track." Parts of Asia Minor, North Africa, and other countries bordering on the Mediterranean, now almost deserts, were once densely populated and the granaries of the world. And there is good reason to believe " that it is the destruction of the forests which has produced this devastation." From such facts Wisconsin, already largely robbed of its forests, should take warning before it is too late. TREES, SHRUBS AND VINES. By P. R. HOY, M.D. It is not the purpose of this article to give a botanical description, but merely brief notes on the economical value of the woods, and the fitness of the various indigenous trees, shrubs and vines for the purpose of ornament, to be found in Wisconsin. WHITE OAK-Quercus Alba.-This noble tree is the largest and most important of the American oaks, The excellent properties of the wood render it eminently valuable for a great variety of uses. Wherever strength and durability are required, the white oak stands in the first rank. It is employed in making wagons, coaches and sleds ; staves and hoops of the best quality for barrels and casks are obtained from this tree; it is extensively used in architecture, ship- building, etc.; vast quantities are used for fencing; the bark is employed in tanning. The domes- tic consumption of this tree is so great that it is of the first importance to preserve the young trees wherever it is practicable, and to make young plantations where the tree is not found. The white oak is a graceful, ornamental tree, and worthy of particular attention as such ; found abun- dantly in most of the timbered districts. BURR OAK-Q. Mfacrocarpa.-This is perhaps the most ornamental of our oaks. Nothing can exceed the graceful beauty of these trees, when not crowded or cramped in their growth, but left free to follow the laws of their development. Who has not admired these trees in our exten- sive burr oak openings? The large leaves are a dark green above and a bright silvery white beneath, which gives the tree a singularly fine appearance when agitated by the wind. The wood is tough, close-grained, and more durable than the white oak, especially when exposed to frequent changes of moisture and drying; did the tree grow to the same size, it would be preferred for most uses. Abundant, and richly worthy of cultivation, both for utility and ornament. SWAMP WHITE OAK-Q. Bicolor.-Is a valuable and ornamental tree, not quite so large or as common as the burr oak. The wood is close-grained, durable, splits freely, and is well worthy of cultivation in wet, swampy grounds, where it will thrive. POST OAK-Q. Obtusiloba.-Is a scraggy, small tree, found sparingly in this state. The tim- ber is durable, and makes good fuel. Not worthy of cultivation. 128
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