The history of Columbia County, Wisconsin, containing an account of its settlement, growth, development and resources; an extensive and minute sketch of its cities, towns and villages--their improvements, industries, manufactories, churches, schools and societies; its war record, biographical sketches, portraits of prominent men and early settlers; the whole preceded by a history of Wisconsin, statistics of the state, and an abstract of its laws and constitution and of the constitution of the United States
Chamberlin, T. C.
Topography and geology, pp. -120 PDF (5.3 MB)
TOPOGRAPHY AND GEOLOGY. BY T. C. CHAMBERLIN, A. M., STATE GEOLOGIST. The surface features of Wisconsin are simple and symmetrical in character, and present a con- figuration intermediate between the mountainous, on the one hand, and a monotonous level, on the other. The highest summits within the state rise a little more than 11,200 feet ab _ye its lowest sur- faces. A-few exceptional peaksrise from 400 to 6oo feet above their basets,_4ut.abrupt elevat-onsoif more than_200_or_3__eet are not common. Viewed as a whole, the state aoc- cupying a swell of land lying between three notable cdl ressions Lake Michigan.won the-east, about 7feet above the meanideof the ocean, LakeSuperior on the north, about 6oo feet abovethe sea, and t iof the Msisisippi whose elevation at the Illinois state line is slightlybe!0w thaf iOULake.Midhigan. From these depressions the surface slopes upward-to the summit altitudes 6f the state. But the rate of ascent is unequal. From Lake Michigan the surface rises by a long, gentle acclivity westward and northward. A similar slope ascends from the Mississippi valley to meet this, and their junction forms a north and south arch extending nearly the entire length of tbe- state. From Lake Superior the surface ascends rapidly to the watershed, which it reaches within about thirty miles of the lake. If we include the contiguous portion of the upper peninsula of Michigan, the whole elevation may be looked upon as a very low, rude, three-sided pyramid, with rounded angles. The apex is near the Michigan line, between the headwaters of the Montreal and Brule rivers. The northern side is short and abrupt. The southeastward and southwestward sides are long, and decline gently. The base of this pyramid may be considered as, in round numbers, 6oo feet above the sea, and its extreme apex i,8oo feet. Under the waters of Lake Michigan the surface of the land passes below the sea level before the limits of the state are reached. Under Lake Superior the land-surface descends to even greater depths, but probably not within the boundaries of the state. The regularity of the southward slopes is interrupted in a very interesting way by a remarkable diagonal valley occupied-by Green bay and the Fox and Wisconsin rivers. This is a great groove,.traversing the state obliquely, and cutting down the central elevation half its height. A line passing across the surface, from Lake Michigan to the Mississippi, at any other point, would arch upward from about 400 to I,000 feet, according to the location, while along the trough of this valley it would reach an elevation barely exceeding 200 feet. On the northwest side of this trough, in general, the surface rises somewhat gradually, giving at most points much amplitude to the valley, but on the opposite side, the slope ascends rapidly to a well marked watershed that stretches across the state parallel to the valley. At Lake Winnebago, this diagonal valley is connected with a scarcely less notable one, occupied by the Rock river. Geologically, this Green-bay-Rock*
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