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The history of Columbia County, Wisconsin, containing an account of its settlement, growth, development and resources; an extensive and minute sketch of its cities, towns and villages--their improvements, industries, manufactories, churches, schools and societies; its war record, biographical sketches, portraits of prominent men and early settlers; the whole preceded by a history of Wisconsin, statistics of the state, and an abstract of its laws and constitution and of the constitution of the United States
(1880)

Butterfield, C. W.
V.--Wisconsin as a state,   pp. 52-109 PDF (28.8 MB)


Page 68


8HISTORY OF WISCONSIN.
lican State. According to the censuz of this year, it had a population of
over seven hundred
and seventy-seven thousand.
     On the ninth of January, I86I, the fourteenth regular session of the
State legislature com-
 menced at Madison. Both branches were republican. Amasa Cobb Was elected
speaker of the
 assembly. On the tenth, both houses met in joint convention to 'hear the
governor read his
 annual message. It was a remarkable document. Besides giving an excellent
synopsis of the
 operations of the State government for i86o, the governor entered largely
into a discussion of
 the question of secession and disunion, as then proposed by some of the
southern states of the
 Union. These are his closing words:
     "The right of a State to secede from   the Union can never be admitted.
The National
 Government can not treat with a State while it is in the Union, and particularly
while it stands
 in an attitude hostile to the Union. So long as any State assumes a position
foreign, inde-
 pendent and hostile to the government, there can be no reconciliation. The
government of the
 United States can not treat with one of its own States as a foreign power.
The constitutional
 laws extend over every Stat- alike. T-hey are to be enforced in every State
alike. A State can
 not come into the Union as it pleases, and go out when it pleases. Once
in, it must stay until
 the Union is destroyed. There is no coercion of a State. But where a faction
of a people arrays.
 itself, not against one act, but against all laws, and against all government,
there is but one
 answer to be made: ' The Government must be sustained.; the laws shall be
enforced!*'"
     On the twenty-third of January the legislature met in joint convention
to elect a United
 States senator to fill the place of Charles Durkee, whose term of office
would expire on the
 fourth of March next ensuing. The successful candidate was Timothy 0. Howe,
republican,
 who was elected for a full term of six years from the 4th of March, 186r.
One of the important
 acts passed at this session of the legislature apportioned the State into
senate and assembly
 districts, by which the whole number of members in both houses was increased
from one hun-
 dred and twenty-seven to one hundred and thirty-three. Another act apportioned
the State into
 six congressional districts instead of three. By this - the third congressional
apportionment
 each district was to elect one representative. The first district was composed
of the counties
 of Milwaukee, Waukesha, Walworth, Racine, and Kenosha; the second, of the
counties of Rock,
 Jefferson, Dane, and Columbia; the third, of Green, La Fayette, Iowa, Grant,
Crawford, Rich-
land, and Sauk; the fourth, of Ozaukee, Washington, Dodge, Fond du Lac, and
Sheboygan; the
fifth, Manitowoc, Calumet, Winnebago, Green Lake, Marquette, Waushara, Waupaca,
Outa-
gamie, Brown, Kewaunee, Door, Oconto, and Shawano; and the sixth, of the
counties of Bad
Axe, La Crosse, Monroe, Juneau, Adams, Portage, Wood, Jackson, Trempealeau,
Buffalo, Pepin,
Pierce, St. Croix, Dunn, Eau Claire, Clark, Marathon, Chippewa, Dallas, Polk,
Burnett, Douglas,
La Pointe, and Ashland. The legislature adjourned on the seventeenth of April,
1861.
     At the spring elections of this year, Orsamus Cole was re-elected as
associate justice of the
supreme court. On the ninth of May following, Governor Randall issued a proclamation
convening
the legislature in extra session on the fifteenth of the same month. "The
extraordinary condition
of the country," said he, " growing out of the rebellion against
the government of the United
States, makes it necessary that the legislature of this State be convened
in special session, to
provide more completely for making the power of the State useful to the government
and to
other loyal States." The fifteenth or extra session began on the fifteenth
of May, as designated
in the governor's proclamation. The message of the governor was devoted entirely
to the war.
"At the close of the last annual session of the legislature," said
he, "to meet a sudden emer-
gency, an act was passed authorizing me to respond to the call of the president
of the United
States, 'for aid in maintaining the Union and the supremacy of the laws,
or to suppress rebellion
68


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