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The history of Columbia County, Wisconsin, containing an account of its settlement, growth, development and resources; an extensive and minute sketch of its cities, towns and villages--their improvements, industries, manufactories, churches, schools and societies; its war record, biographical sketches, portraits of prominent men and early settlers; the whole preceded by a history of Wisconsin, statistics of the state, and an abstract of its laws and constitution and of the constitution of the United States

Butterfield, C. W.
III.--Pre-territorial annals of Wisconsin,   pp. 29-41 PDF (6.5 MB)

Page 40

trail of the savages, leading in the direction of the Wisconsin river. It
was evident that the
retreating force was large, and that it had but recently passed. The pursuing
troops hastened
their march. On the twenty-first of July, 1832, they arrived at the hills
which skirt the left bank
of that stream, in what is now Roxbury town (township), Dane county.  Here
was Black
Hawk's whole force, including women and children,- the aged and infirm, hastening
by every
effort to escape across the river. But that this might now be effected, it
became necessary for
that chief to make a firm stand, to cover the retreat. The Indians were in
the bottom lands
when the pursuing whites made their appearance upon the heights in their
rear. Colonel Dodge
occupied the front and sustained the first attack of the Indians. He was
soon joined by Henry
with his force, when they obtained a complete victory. The action commenced
about five
.o'clock in the afternoon and ended at sunset. The enemy, numbering not less
than five hundred,
sustained a loss of about sixty killed and a large number wounded. The loss
of the Americans
was one killed and eight wounded. This conflict has since been known as the
battle of Wis-
consin Heights.
     During the night following the battle, Black Hawk made his escape with
his remaining force
and people down the Wisconsin river. The women and children made their way
down stream
in canoes, while the warriors marched on foot along the shore. The Indians
were pursued in
their flight, and were finally brought to a stand on the Mississippi river,
near the mouth of the
Bad Axe, on the west boundary of what is now Vernon county, Wisconsin. About
two o'clock
ion the morning of the second of August, the line of march began to the scene
of the last con-
flict in the Black Hawk War. Dodge's command formed the advance, supported
by regular
troops, under Colonel Zachary Taylor, afterward president of the United States.
Meanwhile an
armed steamboat had moved up the Mississippi and lay in front of the savages;
so they were
attacked on all sides by the exasperated Americans. The battle lasted about
two hours, and
was a complete victory for the whites. Black Hawk fled, but was soon after
captured. This
ended the war.
     The survey of public lands by the General Government; the locating and
opening of land
offices at Mineral Point and Green Bay; the erection of Milwaukee county
from a part of
Brown, to include all the territory bounded on the east and south by the
east and south lines of
the present State, on the north by what is now the north boundary of Washington
and Ozaukee
counties and farther westward on the north line of township numbered twelve,
and on the west
by the dividing line between ranges eight and nine; and the changing of the
eastern boundary
of Iowa county to correspond with the western one of Milwaukee county; -are
some of the
important events following the close of the Black Hawk war. There was an
immediate and
rapid increase of immigration, not only in the mining region but in various
other parts of what
is now Wisconsin, more especially in that portion bordering on Lake Michigan.
The interior
was yet sparsely settled. By the act of June 28, 1834, congress having attached
to the Territory
of Michigan, for judicial purposes, all the country "west of the Mississippi
river, and north of
the State of Missouri," comprising the whole of what is now the State
of Iowa, all of the present
State of Minnesota west of the Mississippi river, and more than half of what
is now the Terri-
tory of Dakota, the legislative council of Michigan Territory extended her
laws over the whole
area, dividing it on the 6th of September, 1834, by a line drawn dUe west
from the lower end of
Rock island to the Missouri river into two counties: the country south of
that line constituting
the county of Des Moines; north of the line, to be known as the county of
Dubuque.  This
whole region west of the Mississippi was known as the Iowa district. Immediately
after the
treaty of 1832 with the Sacs and Foxes, the United States having come into
ownership of a large
tract in this district, several families crossed the Mississippi, and settled
on the purchase, but as

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