The history of Columbia County, Wisconsin, containing an account of its settlement, growth, development and resources; an extensive and minute sketch of its cities, towns and villages--their improvements, industries, manufactories, churches, schools and societies; its war record, biographical sketches, portraits of prominent men and early settlers; the whole preceded by a history of Wisconsin, statistics of the state, and an abstract of its laws and constitution and of the constitution of the United States
Butterfield, C. W.
III.--Pre-territorial annals of Wisconsin, pp. 29-41 PDF (6.5 MB)
PRE-TERRITORIAL ANNALS OF WISCONSIN. Such in brief is a general outline of affairs, so far as those two tribes were concerned, down to the close of the last war with England. From this time, to the year 1830, several additional treaties were made with the Sacs and Foxes by the General Government: one in 1822, by which they relin- quished their right to have the United States establish a trading house or factory at a Convenient point at which the Indians could trade and save themselves from the imposition of traders, for which they were paid the sum of one thousand dollars in merchandise. Again, in 1824, they sold to the General Government all their lands in Missouri, north of Missouri river, for which they received one thousand dollars the same year, and an annuity of one thousand dollars for ten years. In 1830, they ceded to. the United States a strip of land twenty miles wide from the Mis- sissippi to the Des Moines, on the north side of their territory. The time had now come for the two tribes to leave the eastern shore of the Mississippi and retire across the ".great water." Keokuk, the Watchful Fox, erected his wigwam on the west side of the river, and was followed by a large part of the two tribes. But a band headed by Ma-ka-tai-me-she-kia-kiah, or the Black Sparrow Hawk, commonly called Black Hawk, refused to leave their village near Rock Island. They contended that they had not sold their town to the United States; and, upon their return early in 1831, from a hunt across the Mississippi, finding their village and fields in possession of the whites, they determined to repossess their homes at all hazards. This was looked upon, or called, an encroachment by the settlers; so the governor of Illinois took the responsibility of declaring the State invaded, and asked the United States to drive the refractory Indians beyond the Mississippi. The result was, the Indian village was destroyed by Illinois, volunteers. This and the threatened advance across the river by the United States commander, brought Black Hawk and his followers to terms. They sued for peace-agreeing to remain forever on the west side of the Mississippi. But this truce was of short duration. Early in the Spring of 1832, Black Hawk having assembled his forces on the Mississippi, in the vicinity of the locality where Fort Madison had stood, crossed that stream and ascended Rock river. This was the signal for war. The governor of Illinois made a call for volunteers; and, in a brief space of time, eighteen hundred had assembled at Beardstown, Cass county. They marched for the mouth of Rock river, where a council of war was held by their officers and Brigadier-General Henry Atkinson, of the regular forces. The Indians were sent word by General Atkinson that they must return and recross the Mississippi, or they would be driven back by force. "If you wish to fight us, come on," was the laconic but defiant reply of the Sac chief. When the attempt was made to compel these Indians to go back across the " great river," a collision occurred between the Illinois militia and Black Hawk's braves, resulting in the dis- comfiture of the former with the loss of eleven men. Soon afterward the volunteers were dis- charged, and the first campaign of Black Hawk's War was at an end. This was in May, 1832. In June following, a new force had been raised and put under" the command of General Atkinson, who commenced his march up Rock river. Before this, there had been a general "forting" in the lead region, including the whole country in Southwest Wisconsin, notwithstand- ing which, a number of settlers had been killed by the savages, mostly in Illinois. Squads of volunteers, in two or three instances, had encountered the Indians; and in one with entire suc- cess-upon the Pecatonica, in what is now Lafayette county, Wisconsin-every savage (and there were seventeen of them) being killed. The loss of the volunteers was three killed and wounded. Atkinson's march up Rock river was attended with some skirmishing; when, being informed that Black Hawk and his force were at Lake Koshkonong, in the southwest corner of what is now Jefferson county, Wisconsin, he immediately moved thither with a portion of his army, where the whole force was ordered to concentrate. But the Sac chief with his people had flown. Colonels Henry Dodge and James D. Henry, wvith the forces under them, discovered the 39
Based on date of publication, this material is presumed to be in the public domain.| Original materal owned by South Central Library System.| For information on re-use see: http://digital.library.wisc.edu/1711.dl/Copyright